When Sheikh Muhammad ‘Abduh (1849-1905), one of the most influential Muslim scholars of the late 19th and early 20th century, famously declared that he had found Islam but no Muslims abroad (in the West), and Muslims but no Islam at home (in the Muslim world), he wanted to bring home the message that Muslims were more and more drifting away not only from the original revealed message of Islam, but also from the power and guidance both of sound reasoning and pure human nature, or instinct.
As such, Muslims became very weak and vulnerable. While Westerners were increasingly abandoning their traditional religious beliefs and values in favor of pervasive secularism, agnosticism, irreligious modernism and liberalism, Muslims were grappling with the task of reclaiming a collective identity, orientation and purpose. Trying to find their feet in the midst of emerging modern trends and phenomena, which were fanned by the notions of active westernization, imperialism and globalization, Muslims were consumed by the idea of a mere cultural and civilizational survival.
It is true that Muslims possess the heavenly inspiration and guidance, but for the latter’s actualization and application in the complex vicissitudes of life, the function of sound reason and unimpeded human nature, or instinct, is always paramount. Neither revelation, nor human reason and human nature alone, will suffice for the realization of a comprehensive civilizational program. Subtle integration between the two is the only solution and way forward. This way, whereas Westerners were compromising especially their spirituality and morality, Muslims were increasingly compromising everything. Having forsaken both revelation and reason, they were in danger of losing both this world and the Hereafter.
The problem of discrepancies between Islam and Muslims, which Sheikh Muhammad ‘Abduh highlighted more than a century ago, was continually in force for a long time. Due to a number of internal as well as external factors, it, of late, kept growing, and its negative effects multiplying, at a rate hitherto unheard of, so much so that today’s Muslims as the ummah (community) stand as far from Islam — as a civilizational force — as never before. The greatest of optimists can hardly see a glimmer of light at the end of the tunnel.
Unfortunately, the Muslim youth are repeatedly the biggest victim of the whole tragedy, as they often find themselves painfully torn between gloomy reality and fancy dreams, ambiguous rhetoric and concrete action, and between blind imitation and formalism, and pursuing the authentic meaning and substance of life. The condition is bound to eventually take its toll on the intellectual, spiritual and moral development of the Muslim youth, depriving the ummah thereby of their badly needed involvements and contributions for its alleviation and growth.
The situation made a scholar to observe that while a great many Muslims declare themselves Muslims, they, in actual fact, are hardcore materialists and sceptics. While their lips attest to the monotheistic creed of Islam, their hearts and minds embrace and take great delight in something else.
In the same vein, some who reverted to Islam also said: “Thank God we knew Islam before knowing Muslims”.
Westernization, as a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture, including lifestyle, religion, philosophy, entertainment, government and values, is often cited as one of the main reasons for a rapid decline in Muslims’ religiosity. It is often perceived that being westernized is the antithesis of being a good Muslim.
Westerners made so much progress in various areas of culture and civilization that many Muslims could not resist the prospect of following in their footsteps in order to attain the same results. This applied as much to such areas that did not conflict with the message of Islam, as to such that plainly did. Western development models were aggressively promoted as most progressive and as something man has always idealized and dreamed about. A worship-like attitude was often attached to them.
But if Muslims are westernized, they are expected to be as materialistically advanced and prosperous as Westerners themselves. They are expected to be there or thereabouts. That, however, is not the case by any means.
One wonders, if Muslims are westernized, why their institutions of learning are not as advanced and dynamic as those in the West, why their economies are not as robust, why their governments are not as functional, just and honest, why their cities are not as efficient and clean, why their judiciaries are not as independent, why their legal systems are not as fair and just, why their citizens’ human rights are not as much respected, why they are not as free and democratic, why their natural environments are not as much taken care of, etc.
All this shows that Muslims are not westernized in the sense that they painstakingly follow, or try to benefit from, the West in what is inherently good, beneficial and in harmony with the Islamic message and values, as well as with Muslim cultures, tradition and history. Such a proposition applies, by and large, to certain aspects of those worldly life segments as industry, science, technology, politics, economics, government, media and, to some extent, language. That is consistent with the Prophet’s words: “Wisdom is the lost property of the believer, he may claim it wherever he finds it” (Jami’ al-Tirmidhi).
Rather, Muslims are westernized in the sense that they deliberately chose to be a leading consumer of the Western lifestyles and a dumping ground for the junk of Western culture. They chose to be at the receiving end of the Western cultural imperialism.
At times, many Muslims appear to be more western than Westerners themselves. They developed an inferiority complex, believing that anything associated with the West is superior, and anything associated with them is mediocre. Especially in their cultural, intellectual, entertainment and professional matters, the epicentres of Western culture became their qiblahs.
It is undeniable that culturally, the West is in retreat. The edifice of its culture is steadily crumbling, but Muslims, led by their incompetent governments, seem to be the last to realize that. A number of Muslim countries are poised to be the last bastions of Western culture.
As a result, Muslims abandoned their glorious Islamic teachings and values in favor of Western values rooted in atheism, materialism, hedonism, selfishness, discrimination and greed, whereby God has been either rejected or humanized, and man, in turn, with his animal desires, deified. Muslims, moreover, ended up exploring and idolizing Western people’s histories, national institutions, heroes and traditions, neglecting, or utterly forgetting, their own. They also tailored their educational systems in such a way as to serve primarily the interests of the West, rather than their own. Thus, the status quo was set to be perpetuated interminably, and the uninterrupted supply lines for puppet politicians, business leaders, aristocrats, educators and other professionals, ensured.
That said, one wonders – for example — what made the Saudi government happy to allow some hotels, restaurants, coffee shops, clothing stores and fashion shops, whose brands evoke, yet stand for the spirit and symbols of more than a few dimensions of Western culture, to operate in the immediate vicinity of al-Masjid al-Haram. Since they are meant to accommodate, feed and satisfy other basic needs of millions of pilgrims, those hotels, restaurants, coffee shops, clothing stores and fashion shops indirectly constitute a segment of the immense and ever expanding complex of al-Masjid al-Haram. That’s why they must be governed more seriously and more accountably.
Some of the fancy and top-notch hotels, which also house extravagant shopping centers, appear to insightful observers as good as transformed into temples of materialism, consumerism and modernism — as comprehensive worldviews and ideologies that stand at the diametrically opposite points of the tawhidic worldview and ideology of Islam.
If polytheists and idolaters (in fact, all nonbelievers) are not allowed to set their foot in the holy precincts of both Makkah and Madinah — in view of them being holy cities that contain the two holiest mosques in Islam — because such persons (their bodies, minds and souls) are impure (najas) (al-Tawbah, 28), then, the same could be said about bad ideas and values and their various physical manifestations. They, too, must be kept as far away from the two holy cities and their holy mosques as possible.
Surely, the greatest enemies of Muslims are neither some governments, nor armies, but ignorance and certain bad ideas and values. They are most evil, impure, unproductive and dangerous.
If the Saudi government did the mentioned thing due to some economic considerations, does not the Qur’an proclaim in the same verse, i.e., al-Tawbah, 28: “And if you fear poverty (from the loss of merchandise in view of your dissociation from polytheists and other nonbelievers), Allah shall enrich and preserve you out of His bounty if He wills, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise”?
As always, the matter is about how strong people’s faith in God and His promises is. The question is whether we trust Him and His plans more, or humans and their concerns and projections.
In other words, Muslims are their own worst enemies. The issue is not only about polytheists and idolaters, but also about diverse forms and manifestations of polytheism and idolatry. Nor is it only about nonbelievers, but also about countless forms and expressions of non-belief and falsehood.
Dealing with wayward and immoral persons is much easier than dealing with malevolent and immoral, often “creatively” articulated and worked, ideas and values. Most people succeed concerning the former, but fail in relation to the latter. That is one of the chief reasons why history, heritage and tradition — not favored by modernism and driven-by-materialism consumerism – do not play any significant role in the constant expansions of al-Masjid al-Haram and the city of Makkah as a whole, and lots of people, inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and beyond, see nothing wrong with that.
It goes without saying that, in principle, the spiritual apathy of Muslims has nothing to do with westernization and Westerners. The problems are purely Muslim-related and Muslims are entirely to be blamed for them. If, for instance, someone does not pray, fast, give to charity, or go for hajj (pilgrimage), does not read and study the Qur’an, dresses inappropriately, uses bad language, resorts to inappropriate entertainment, teaches inappropriate things in schools and universities, practices corruption and oppression, lacks productivity, honesty and commitment, etc., that is entirely his, or her, choice and he, or she, is fully responsible for the consequences. Nobody else – least of all the West – is to be blamed. The crisis is in the mind and soul.
Growing crimes against women
By Aritry Das
For years India has grappled with the tag of being the ‘most dangerous country for women‘. Successive governments introduced measures, but there is increasing evidence that they don’t work – and are counter-productive. Indeed, in key Indian states, cases of sexual violence are on the rise.
The Constitution of India mandates that as a federal union of states, law and order issues remain primarily with state governments, unless there are overarching issues such as terrorism. This results in many states trying different methods to tackle growing violence against women, and creating a range of other problems rather than solutions.
States like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are the top states for registered rapes and sexual assaults, according to data from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), a federal body that collates statistics across states. These state governments are introducing new measures to increase women’s safety, but experts say their moves are not addressing root causes and systemic failures in India’s creaking criminal justice system.
As many as 38,947 rapes were reported in 2016, which was a rise of 12% from 2015. The number of cases reported under “sexual assault, harassment and molestation”, was 84,746 nationally. This is the second-most common crime against women after “domestic violence” cases.
When Uttar Pradesh chief minister Ajay Singh Bisht, (Yogi Adityanath) came to power in 2017, he decided to tackle the problem of women’s safety by creating the controversial ‘anti-Romeo squad’, with police roaming in civil dress to surveil public spaces to keep a check on street harassers (also known as “roadside Romeos”).
The squad was eventually disbanded. But following a spate of rapes of minors, Bisht directed the police to revive the squad with the new power to issue a warning ‘red card’ to ‘suspected harassers’. If a person is caught twice doing a similar act, he will face criminal proceedings.
The squad had earlier drawn flak after reports surfaced about them targeting and publicly shaming young men, giving moral advice to couples, while some were made to do sit-ups or had their heads shaved in public.
Vaibhav Krishna, a Senior Superintendent of Police in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, told Asia Times that police officers for 23 anti-Romeo squads were receiving gender sensitization and training programs to help them handle cases better.
The squad’s further empowerment has raised concerns. Reports of the squad “moral policing” couples and a subsequent increase in sexual violence cases indicated that the measure was not working, according to PoonamKaushik, a women’s rights activist and general secretary of PragatisheelMahilaSangathan.
In the neighboring state of Rajasthan, crimes against women under all sections of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) jumped by around 40% and rape cases rose by 30% in the first five months of this year compared to the same period last year. This happened despite the government setting up its own version of the anti-Romeo squad in 2018 with policewomen on two-wheelers.
“In Rajasthan, the government has not set up enough women’s help desks or One-Stop Crisis Centers [to assist rape victims]. Instead, they are trying to create these mechanisms [anti-Romeo squad] that are working against women being in public spaces due to moral policing,” said women’s rights activist KavitaSrivastava, who played a key role in the framing of the Vishakha guidelines to address sexual harassment at workplaces.
Now the Rajasthan government plans to set up special investigation units for crimes against women.
Delhi, meanwhile, had at least five rapes reported every day last year, according to NCRB data. So, the state government wants to boost safety by bringing more women into public spaces through free metro and bus rides, and installing 300,000 CCTV cameras. The Delhi Police, which reports to the Home Ministry, also launched a motorcycle-fleet of female cops to patrol the streets called Raftar.
But it is hard to spot this patrol squad on the road, according to Jaya Velankar, director of Jagori, a women’s organization that works to make city spaces safer. She also pointed out that unless roads are safe, free public transport won’t work.
Data from Delhi Police shows that sexual violence against women has only marginally decreased in recent times. In the first six months of 2019, reported cases of rape (IPC 376) were 973, down from 1,005 cases in the same period in 2018, while cases of assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty (IPC 354) decreased by 172 and insults to the modesty of women (IPC 509) decreased by 101.
Madhya Pradesh was the first state to propose the death penalty for men who rape girls under the age of 12, back in 2017. But violence against women has not gone down. Rape of minor girls in the state made headlines throughout June this year. Now the government has taken an initiative to introduce GPS tracking devices and emergency “panic buttons” in passenger vehicles such as buses and taxis.
Maharashtra assigned a 2.5-billion-rupee (US$36 million) budget for women’s safety initiatives. But sexual violence cases have risen despite this. But a survey by non-government groups Akshara and Safetipin found that 44% of areas in Mumbai, the state capital, were unsafe. It said women were only safe to walk on 22% of Mumbai’s streets.
This year the Maharashtra government finally proposed safety measures such as setting up SOS hotspots, tracking apps and installing more CCTV cameras.
However, feminists are not convinced that surveillance leads to greater safety for women or a loss of autonomy.
The rising number of crimes has put state lawmakers in a difficult position and they have criticized the police, who then discourage women from filing cases, Velankar claimed. But a higher number of reported cases also meant that more women were coming out to report violence and governments now had greater responsibility to assure they get justice, she said.
The implementation of a major national scheme to increase women’s safety is also not faring well. Recent reports revealed that between 2015 and 2018, states and union territories used less than 20% of the 8.5-billion-rupee ($124 million) budget allocated to them under the Nirbhaya Fund, which supports schemes for women’s safety. The fund was set up in the aftermath of a brutal gang-rape of a paramedical student in New Delhi in December 2012. Delhi, which has the highest rate of crime against women, fared the worst by using only 0.84% of the 350 million rupees it received.
“The Nirbhaya Fund is used as per proposals from different departments of the central and state governments. It will not be implemented if there is no will to do so,” a senior federal official of the Ministry of Women and Child Development told Asia Times on the condition of anonymity.
Experts say government initiatives and implementation of laws won’t create change if a culture of impunity has made the criminal justice system weak. Kaushik noted that some of the worst accusations against the police stem from recent rape cases of minors in Unnao and Kathua, where they are alleged to have bowed to pressure from people of influence to bury cases and evidence.
The Unnao rape victim, who claimed she was a minor at the time of the incident, tried to self-immolate last year due to the police not registering her complaint against a BJP lawmaker. In the Kathua case verdict, four police officers were convicted among the six accused in connection to rape and murder of an eight-year-old Kashmiri girl.
Another major hurdle that stops victims of sexual violence from getting justice is the low conviction rate in India, which is a mere 25.5% for rape and just under 22% for sexual assault and harassment, according to NCRB data.
Why justice matters in Jammu and Kashmir
By Harinder Baweja
Pakistan has for long sponsored terrorism in?Kashmir. But is it enough for India to point to “causality”, without introspecting on the fact that Kashmir has a long litany of documented human rights violations that have gone unpunished?
Think about it. Why does India get prickly each time allegations of human rights abuse in Jammu and Kashmir are placed at its door? Is it because there is some truth in the allegations? Does India have a lot to hide when it comes to violations committed by its men in uniform?
Dismissing an updated report by Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which faulted both India and Pakistan for not improving the situation in Kashmir, a ministry of external affairs (MEA) spokesperson said last week, “A situation created by years of cross-border terrorist attacks emanating from Pakistan has been analysed without any reference to its causality.”
Reflecting India’s indignation at being called out, the spokesperson said, the report “seems to be a contrived effort to create an artificial parity between the world’s largest and most vibrant democracy and a country that openly practices state-sponsored terrorism.”
Let us get this out of the way first.
Yes, it can be said, with no hesitation at all, that Pakistan has for long sponsored terrorism and will likely continue to practise its “bleed India through a thousand cuts” policy. It has suffered humiliation at the hands of the United Nations Security Council, which recently declared Jaish-e-Mohammad chief, MasoodAzhar, a global terrorist. But that tag too is unlikely to lead to the Pakistani deep State severing its ties with the jihadi outfits it sees as “assets.”
But is it enough for India to point to “causality”, without introspecting on the fact that Kashmir has a long litany of documented human rights violations that have gone unpunished? The Valley, in fact, has erupted in anger each time the men in uniform have crossed the line, but justice – that ever so important balm for a population as alienated as Kashmir’s – has mostly stayed elusive.
Let’s talk about the two occasions when the Valley boiled over with anger.
First, in 2010, Kashmiris took to the streets after the Indian Army, in a fake encounter, killed three civilians and passed them off as infiltrating terrorists. The gross violation was proved beyond a doubt. The unsuspecting civilians had been lured to Machil, a forward sector along the Line of Control, and killed in cold blood. Despite an Army court martial pronouncing five of its men guilty and sentencing them for life, the Armed Forces Tribunal suspended the sentence, arguing that civilians ought not to have been in a forward location, wearing “pathan suits”.
Just like in 2010, when over 100 protesting youth were shot dead, in 2016 too, the civilian toll crossed 100 after stone pelters – angry with the killing of militant commander Burhan Wani – took to the streets. Kashmir gave vent to deep anger and betrayal – not only because Wani was eliminated – but because the trust deficit between the Valley and Delhi had eroded over years, and reached break point.
The pellet gun became the symbol of oppression. It blinded, maimed and killed. The OHCHR report that India summarily dismissed, pointed to the basic tenets of injustice: “There is no information about any new investigation into excessive use of force leading to casualties. There is no information on the status of the five investigations launched into extrajudicial executions in 2016… No prosecutions have been reported.”
Kashmiris live with this reality every day. Why must brazen killings go unpunished? More importantly, why lash out at a report that questions excessive use of force?
The Kashmiri wound is deep and it has festered for too long. One major step forward would be to reduce the repressive security measures. Instead of negating charges of abuse and human rights violations, India ought to take steps towards setting up a truth and reconciliation commission. Why not encourage public hearings in which victims and their families are encouraged to speak?
Reaching out and admitting to violations will help rebuild trust. It is not enough to merely look at figures that point to a reduction in infiltration. The problem now centresaround home-grown militants. Violations only fuel the cycle of violence.
Admit, address and provide justice, for Kashmir is not a piece of real estate, to be ruled by force.
(Courtesy: Hindustan Times)
Remove stigma, report psychiatric ailments
By Dr Arif Maghribi Khan
“All patients are mad. All psychiatric medicines cause sleep.” Yes, this is the common perception in Kashmir. While the fact remains that according to easiest classifications of diseases, there are two types of psychiatric ailments – neurotic and psychotic. In neurotic diseases, patient does not lose contact with reality.
The patient can tell you his or her name, address, locality correctly while in psychotic ailments, patient’s contact with reality is lost and he or she lives in world of their own. Such patients often report seeing angels, strange figures, or hearing voices or sounds, which nobody else sitting with the patient sees or hears.
One example of psychotic ailments is schizophrenia, the prevalence of which is as low as 0.5 per 1000, while ailments like depression, anxiety, phobia form the bulk of psychiatric ailments. Even in this day and age, when all the world of knowledge and information is at our fingertips, we as a society have not been able to differentiate between the two.
So the stigma remains attached with psychiatric ailments thus delaying diagnosis and treatment. It is because of this stigma, people visit psychiatric settings with faces covered or masked. Young adults and children fear to disclose to their parents if they suffer from depression or anxiety disorders, which leads them to live an impaired life, wherein they struggle with issues like loss of interest in studies or even loss of employment as their inability to concentrate consistently tears apart their social and professional lives.
Parents are there to discipline and guide children but not to make them fear depression. Another problem hitting psychiatric healthcare in Kashmir is the myth that all medicines prescribed by psychiatrists cause sleep, while the fact is that psychiatric medicines work by increasing, changing or blocking activities of neurotransmitters.
Nerves carry information from the body to the brain and vice versa. The brain is composed of roughly 86 billion neurons. Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters carry messages between neurons to help the brain receive the information, decide what it means and execute a reaction. Neurotransmitters are responsible for emotional regulation, pain perception, motivation, concentration, memory energy, mood, sleep patterns, libido. Any imbalance can result in Depression, Nightmares, Mental Fatigue, Anxiety, Impaired cognition, attention, and arousal, Apathy, Lack of motivation, Poor attention, and Fatigue. Most of the time a qualified psychiatrist uses anti-depressants which do not cause sleep, in first few months of treatment depending upon the psychiatric ailment anxiolytics, also known as ‘tranquilizers’ are used.
So let’s stop assuming that all medicines cause sleep and we will be dependent on them for rest of our life.
The biggest challenge faced by doctors today and specially psychiatrists is that due to easy availability of internet most patients start Google searching medicine for 8 minutes prescribed by a doctor who studied medicine for 8 years, fact is that not all information surfers get on medicine by Google search is authenticated. Patients are well advised to seek such information from doctor rather than what is searched on internet or what a specialist from other field like education or engineering has to say!
We need to fight epidemic of psychiatric ailments including drug abuse on basis of science and not search on internet. It’s as simple as that, to aware common people doctors, counsellors from field of mental health need to work vigorously in community to clear myths and mist surrounding psychiatric ailments. We need to give patients of anxiety disorders or drug abuse respect and not scare them with unfounded information. Also next time we label some person as mad for being stressed kindly read this survey of again “Nearly 1.8 million adults (45% of the population) in the Kashmir show symptoms of significant mental distress according to a comprehensive mental health survey conducted by the medical humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) between October and December 2015. The research was done in collaboration with the Department of Psychology, Kashmir University and the Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience (IMHANS).
(Author can be mailed at [email protected])
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