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Adolescents’ eyes could signal risk of cardiovascular disease

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Structural changes in the retina of adolescents could reveal their risk of cardiovascular disease later, say researchers including one of Indian-origin. The findings showed adolescents particularly males with poorer health-related quality of life had wider arteriolar and narrower venular blood vessels in the retina. “These particular changes are possible indicators for future cardiovascular disease risk,” said lead researcher Bamini Gopinath, Associate Professor at The Westmead Institute for Medical Research in Sydney, Australia.
“Our research indicates the subtle changes to retinal blood vessels could be promising indicators of a future risk of cardiovascular disease,” Gopinath added. The research, published in the journal Scientific Reports, showed adolescents with poorer scores in the social and mental well-being domains of “health-related quality of life” have structural changes in their retinal blood vessels that could be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life.
“Poor well-being and certain structural changes to the retina are both associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease,” Gopinath said. Importantly, the health-related quality of life measures were independently linked to the structural changes we observed. This means the changes will still occur, even if no traditional risk factors, such as higher body mass and blood pressure, are present.
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause. An estimated 17.7 million people died from cardiovascular disease in 2015, representing 31 per cent of all global deaths. Early intervention is the key for preventing the disease in those with an increased risk. “Our findings suggest that in the future, health-related quality of life assessments could also be used to improve or add to existing evaluations of adolescent cardiovascular health,” Gopinath said.


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Health

Follow This Diet To Prevent Chronic Kidney Disease

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If you have chronic kidney disease you should be very careful as to what you are eating and drinking. Controlling high blood pressure and diabetes is very necessary to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. You need to change your diet in order to manage chronic kidney disease. One is more likely to develop kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease or a family history of kidney failure. A kidney-friendly diet limits certain foods to prevent the minerals in those foods from building up in your body.
You can prevent chronic kidney disease by the following measures:
1. Make Healthy Choices: Start eating foods that are healthy for your heart and kidney. Try eating and buying only fresh food. Your diet should include fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat or fat-free dairy products. Try to cut back on salt and added sugars. Instead you can use other spices and herbs to make your meals tasty.
2. Eat less Salt: You should avoid too many prepared or packaged foods you buy at the supermarket or at restaurants as it contains too much salt. Try to eat home cooked food as much as possible as most fast foods have high amounts of salt. Always look for food labels with words like sodium free or salt free; or low, reduced, or no salt or sodium; or unsalted or lightly salted.
3. Right amount of Protein: When your body uses protein, it produces waste. Your kidneys remove this waste. Eating more protein than you need may make your kidneys work harder. Hence, you should be careful as to what proteins are you taking and in what amounts. It is important to ensure your protein intake comes from high-quality sources such as egg whites, fish, poultry, meat, soya and small of amounts of dairy.
4. Fluids: Water is important to survive, but when you have kidney disease, you may not need in high quantity. This is because damaged kidneys do not get rid of extra fluid as well as they should. Too much fluid in your body can be dangerous. It can cause high blood pressure, swelling and heart failure. Extra fluid can also build up around your lungs and make it hard to breathe.

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Resistance training can motivate you to stick to your exercise regime

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Resistance training can improve exercise motivation and planning among older adults, says a new study.
Lack of motivation is a big factor for many people not following an exercise regime. But a few months of resistance trainingcan change that by instilling an intrinsic interest in pursuing physical activity, suggests new research. Resistance training can maintain and increase muscle strength and functional capacity when ageing and it is recommended for older adults at least twice a week.
It also improves exercise motivation and contributes to making exercise planning among older adults, according to the study published in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. The study investigated the effects of a nine-month supervised resistance training intervention on exercise motivation, exercise planning and exercise self-efficacy.
In addition, it was examined whether these factors predict the continuation of resistance training for the next year following the intervention. he study involved 104 healthy 65-75-year-olds who did not meet physical activity guidelines for endurance exercise at baseline and did not have previous resistance training experience.
“Nine months of regular resistance training increased the intrinsic motivation for both training and physical activity in general: the subjects started to enjoy exercising,” said one of the researchers Tiia Kekalainen from the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Additionally, exercise planning increased, indicating that the participants started to think about how to start and maintain a physically active lifestyle, Kekalainen said. After completing the supervised resistance training intervention, nearly half of the participants (46%) continued resistance training independently.
Approximately half of them participated in resistance training on average once-a-week during the following year and the other half twice-a-week. The results suggest that finding intrinsic motivation for exercise and increasing confidence to maintain a physically active lifestyle contribute to continuing resistance training independently.

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High BP may be linked to higher BMI and obesity

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A higher Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity could be linked to high blood pressure, says a new study.
If you have a higher body mass index(BMI), chances are you may have increased blood pressure(BP) too, a new study has found. The findings, published in the journal JAMA Network Open, showed a strong correlation between the degree of obesity and high blood pressure.
Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to several cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke and heart failure. For the study, the research team involved 1.7 million Chinese men and women aged between 35 and 80 years and recorded the participants’ blood pressure from September 2014 to June 2017. They observed an increase of 0.8 to 1.7 mm Hg (kg/m2) in blood pressure per additional unit of BMI in individuals who were not taking anti-hypertensive medication.
Overall, the population had a mean BMI of 24.7 and a mean systolic blood pressure of 136.5, which qualifies as stage-I hypertension, according to American Heart Association guidelines. “If trends in overweight and obesity continue in China, the implication of our study is that hypertension, already a major risk factor, is likely to become even more important,” said senior author Harlan Krumholz from Yale University in the US. “This paper is ringing the bell that the time is now to focus on these risk factors,” he added.
The enormous size of the dataset allows us to characterise this relationship between BMI and blood pressure across tens of thousands of subgroups, which simply would not be possible in a smaller study, said author George Linderman from the varsity.

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