Skin pigmentation is a medical condition where the natural tone of the skin is affected due to a change in the production of melanin. Melanin is a pigment, the production of which gives us our natural colour. Any overproduction of melanin can cause hyperpigmentation, i.e. the skin might turn darker and an underproduction of melanin causes hypopigmentation which makes the skin lighter. Such a change in the production of melanin is caused when the skin cells become damaged or unhealthy. Skin pigmentation may occur in the form of patches or spots. Patches may occur on any part of the body while spots occur usually on the face.
Causes of skin pigmentation:
The primary cause behind skin pigmentation is a change in the melanin production. But what causes such a change is mostly strong sun exposure on the skin. Melanin is a pigment which protects our skin from the harmful rays of the sun. But if you expose your skin to sun rays for a long time, the exposure might damage your skin cells and cause the melanin to under produce or overproduce itself causing skin pigmentation.
Another driving cause of skin pigmentation is hormonal change. It is said that skin pigmentation more commonly occurs among women because of the changes that female sex hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone bring about in the production of melanin when the skin comes in prolonged contact with sun rays.
Skin pigmentation may also occur due to genetic inheritance. If any of your parents happen to be suffering from skin pigmentation, the chances of the same may increase in you.
An injury also causes pigmentation. Melanin is also frequently affected when the skin cells get damages. Injury inflicts such a damage hence causing skin pigmentation.
Symptoms of skin pigmentation:
Different disorders associated with skin pigmentation may have different symptoms. In the case of albinism, a change of colour in the skin, eyes and hair is a clear symptom. In cases of hyper pigmentation, the occurrence of dark patches on the skin is taken as a vivid symptom of the diseases. Patches of colour abnormal to your skin colour are the most definite symptom of skin pigmentation.
Treatment of skin pigmentation:
Skin pigmentation is often diagnosed through medical examinations such as Wood’s lamp or black light test. These are visual examinations which are often used to diagnose skin problems related to pigmentation. A biopsy may also be conducted to check whether or not is the skin pigmentation a symptom of cancer. After the pigmentation is diagnosed, its treatment begins. The treatment includes undergoing bleaching to lighten the skin ( most recommended in hyperpigmentation), chemical peels, and even laser surgery. Topical steroid creams and topical creams containing tretinoin may also be suggested as a treatment for skin pigmentation. While the treatment is going on, it is constantly reminded that you must further protect your skin from the harmful radiations of the sun.
Skin pigmentation may not be prevented in situations where the cause of the disease is genetic inheritance or injury. But if you are planning to spend the summers lying on a beach to get the perfect tan, then you must remember to apply sunscreen and protect your skin from overexposure to the sun rays.
Never ignore the common signs of A Heart Attack in Women
Every person knows the common signs of Heart attack is chest pain. It’s not like how it is shown in movies where a man is shown gasping for breath, clutches his chest and falls on the ground. When it comes to real life, the symptoms of heart attack are more than just pain in the chest. Yes, chest pain is a symptom of heart attack, but there are other subtle signs of cardiovascular problems, which are important to know. As per studies, women do mostly feel chest pain when they suffer from a cardinal problem, there are few other signs you should be cautious about. If these signs are overlooked then it can even turn fatal.
The common signs of a heart attack one should not ignore in women
- Do you feel uncomfortable pressure in your chest?
One of the most common signs of a Heart attack in women. If you are feeling pressure and tightness around your chest, then ask for help. Pain can happen anywhere in the chest, it is not necessary to be the middle of the heart. Do not brush off the situation just because the pain is on the left side.
- Breathing Difficulty
Uneasiness and difficulty in breathing is another sign of heart attack in Women. If you are not able to catch your breath and move around even a little bit, then it is an indicator that something is not right with your heart.
Sweating on a sunny day or due to intense workout is normal, but if it is random then you should immediately call someone for help. Profuse and sudden sweating can be a sign of a cardiovascular problem. This sign is easily confused with night sweats or hot flashes, which is common with age Overlooking this can be dangerous for you.
- pain experienced in both the arms
It is not necessary that pain be experienced only in the chest or in the middle of the heart. At times it can even be on the left or right arm, or even in the upper abdomen. It is important to note that any type of pain above the waist could be due to a heart problem. The pain could be irregular or intense
- The most common sign Dizziness
Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in women. These signs of a heart attack are mostly confused with food poisioned or gastrointestinal issues. But if you are experiencing nausea and vomiting along with pain in the upper part of the body, then it is time immediately rush to the hospital.
One feels very exhausted, but just like other signs of heart attack, if you feel excessively tired than usual then you get yourself checked. You would actually feel overwhelmed and would not be able to perform any other activity. This sign is often mistaken for anxiety. If you suddenly feel fatigued and uneasy then speak to your practitioner.
Cutting screen time may reverse sleep problems in teens
Limiting exposure to blue-light emitting devices such as phones and laptops in the evening for just a week can help teenagers improve their sleep quality and reduce symptoms of fatigue, lack of concentration and bad mood, a study has found.
Recent studies have indicated that exposure to too much evening light, particularly the blue light emitted from screens on smartphones, tablets and computers can affect the brain’s clock and the production of the sleep hormone melatonin, resulting in disrupted sleep time and quality.
The lack of sleep does not just cause immediate symptoms of tiredness and poor concentration but can also increase the risk of more serious long-term health issues such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease.
Other studies have suggested that sleep deprivation related to screen time may affect children and adolescents more than adults, but no studies have fully investigated how real-life exposure is affecting sleep in adolescents at home and whether it can be reversed.
Researchers from Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience, the Amsterdam UMC and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, investigated the effects of blue light exposure on adolescents at home.
Those who had more than four hours per day of screen time had on average 30 minutes later sleep onset and wake up times than those who recorded less than one hour per day of screen time, as well as more symptoms of sleep loss.
The team conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of blocking blue light with glasses and no screen time during the evening on the sleep pattern of 25 frequent users.
Both blocking blue light with glasses and screen abstinence resulted in sleep onset and wake up times occurring 20 minutes earlier, and a reduction in reported symptoms of sleep loss in participants, after just one week.
“Adolescents increasingly spend more time on devices with screens and sleep complaints are frequent in this age group,” said Dirk Jan Stenvers from the Amsterdam UMC.
“Here we show very simply that these sleep complaints can be easily reversed by minimising evening screen use or exposure to blue light,” Stenvers said.
“Based on our data, it is likely that adolescent sleep complaints and delayed sleep onset are at least partly mediated by blue light from screens,” he said.
Common chemicals can increase risk of metabolic disorders
Do you know that your everyday exposure to everyday harmful chemicals can land you into serious trouble?
A recent study has found that people exposed to chemicals called Phthalates, increasing the risk of metabolic disorders. The study was discussed in the meeting, ‘ECE 2019’. Researchers found a correlation between levels of phthalate exposure and markers of impaired liver function, which are indicators of increased risk of obesity, diabetes and heart disease.
These findings suggest that more actions may need to be taken to reduce people’s exposure to these potentially harmful, yet commonly used chemicals. Phthalates are common additives used in manufacturing to produce plastics and they can be found in numerous everyday items including milk, bottled water, instant coffee, perfume, makeup, shampoo, toys and food packaging.
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals has previously been implicated in causing serious harm to fertility and development, as well as increased obesity risk in rodents and people.
However, no studies have directly investigated how Phthalate exposure is associated with obesity and metabolism. In this study, Professor Milica Medi Stojanoska, one of the researchers correlated the levels of Phthalate absorbed by people with their body weight, type 2 diabetes incidence and markers of impaired liver and metabolic function.
Higher exposure to the chemical was associated with increased markers of liver damage, insulin resistance and cholesterol in people with obesity and diabetes.
Prof Stojanoska says, “Although a small association study, these findings suggest that not only do phthalates alter metabolism to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes but that they are also causing toxic damage to the liver.”
Prof Stojanoska’s research is now looking at the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on human health in adults, adolescents and babies.
“We need to inform people about the potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on their health and look at ways to minimise our contact with these harmful chemicals,” adds the professor.