Researchers have identified over 6,000 antibiotic resistance genes found in bacteria that inhabit the human gut, which is home to trillions of micro-organisms, mainly bacteria.
“Most gut bacteria live in a harmless relationship with the human host. However, the gut is also home to bacteria that can cause infections in hospitalised patients,” said one of the researchers Willem van Schaik, Professor at the University of Birmingham.
“Unfortunately, these bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics and we need to understand the processes that contribute to this development,” he added.
To identify resistance genes in gut bacteria, team of researchers, led by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) in France, developed a new method by comparing the three-dimensional structures of known antibiotic resistance enzymes to the proteins that are produced by gut bacteria.
They then applied this method to a catalogue of several million genes of the gut, leading to the identification of over 6,000 antibiotic resistance genes that are very different from previously identified genes in pathogenic bacteria, according to the study published in the journal Nature Microbiology.
“Most of these genes appeared to be present in bacteria that live in a harmless relationship with the human host, so may not be an immediate threat to human health,” van Schaik said.
“However, the continuing use of antibiotics may lead to these resistance genes being transferred to pathogenic bacteria, thereby further reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating infections,” he added.
If You Want To Lose Weight, Eat This Much Protein Daily
An avid diet plan follower would know how important proteins are. Proteins are nutrients which are not only important for building muscles, but are extremely important for weight loss.
However, it is important to know the right quantity of protein you must have every day. Because of its appetite controlling properties, a person might think that eating lots of protein will speed up weight loss. However, this does not stand true in as creating a balance of all nutrients is important to keep you healthy.
How protein you should eat every day to lose weight?
Studies have mentioned that people who consume 25 to 30% of their calories from lean protein are likely to lose more body fat. It may also help in burning more calories when at rest.
Overweight and obese women who include more proteins and dairy in their diet have been found to lose more body fat and gain lean muscle mass. Lean muscle mass burns more calories even when the body is at rest.
However, consumption of too many calories, even in the form of protein, will make you gain weight.
How much protein you should eat with exercise?
Of course, weight loss cannot be achieved without physical activity. And, proteins are a must for people who exercise. In fact, athletes need more protein than typical dieters. According to VeryWellFit, a person who is on food diets regularly needs 0.8 to 1 gm of protein per kg of body weight. People who exercise heavily, nearly 10 to 12 hours in a week, can increase protein intake by 1.2 to 1.7 gm of protein per kg of their body weight.
Do you need protein supplements?
Well, ideally, you should focus on including protein in your diet through food sources.
Food sources of protein
Following are the food sources of protein which can easily make up for your daily recommended intake of protein for weight loss
4. Dairy products
7. Nut butters
10. Sunflower seeds
15. Pumpkin seeds
All of the aforementioned foods are nutritious, healthy and can help you gain muscle and lose weight.
As far as you are consuming them in the right quantities, you are getting sufficient protein along with other nutrients like calcium, iron, niacin and thiamin. You don’t need protein supplements unless it is recommended to you by your doctor.
Less sleep may lead to poor diet, obesity in kids
Insufficient sleep duration in children may be associated with poor diet, obesity and more screen time, a study warns.
The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, shows that less sleep was linked to unhealthy dietary habits such as skipping breakfast, fast-food consumption and consuming sweets regularly. Insufficient sleep duration also was associated with increased screen time and being overweight/obese, researchers said.
“Approximately 40 percent of schoolchildren in the study slept less than recommended,” said Labros Sidossis from Rutgers University in the US. “Insufficient sleeping levels were associated with poor dietary habits, increased screen time and obesity in both genders,” Sidossis said. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that children six to 12 years of age should sleep nine to 12 hours on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Teenagers 13 to 18 years of age should sleep eight to 10 hours.
Population data were derived from a school-based health survey completed in Greece by 177,091 children (51 percent male) between the ages of 8 and 17 years. Dietary habits, usual weekday and weekend sleeping hours, physical activity status, and sedentary activities were assessed through electronic questionnaires completed at school. Children who reported that they usually sleep fewer than nine hours per day, and adolescents sleeping fewer than eight hours per day, were classified as having insufficient sleep.
A greater proportion of males than females (42.3 percent versus 37.3 percent) and of children compared with adolescents (42.1 percent versus 32.8 percent) reported insufficient sleep duration. Adolescents with an insufficient sleep duration also had lower aerobic fitness and physical activity. “The most surprising finding was that aerobic fitness was associated with sleep habits,” said Sidossis.
“In other words, better sleep habits were associated with better levels of aerobic fitness. We can speculate that adequate sleep results in higher energy levels during the day,” he said. “Therefore, children who sleep well are maybe more physically active during the day and hence have a higher aerobic capacity,” said Sidossis.
The researchers noted that the results support the development of interventions to help students improve sleep duration. “Insufficient sleep duration among children constitutes an understated health problem in Westernised societies,” he said.
Parents, Make Your Child Have A Bedtime Routine For Healthy BMI Later
Is your child facing trouble in sleeping? If so, parents take note. Regular and sufficient sleep from early childhood may be important for gaining healthy body weight in adolescence, suggests a new study.
The study revealed that those who had no bedtime routine at age nine had shorter self-reported sleep duration and higher body mass index (BMI) at age 15, when compared to those children with age-appropriate bedtimes.
“We think sleep affects physical and mental health, and the ability to learn,” said Orfeu Buxton, Professor from the University of Pennsylvania in the US.
“Parenting practices in childhood affect physical health and BMI in the teenage years. Developing a proper routine in childhood is crucial for the future health of the child,” Buxton added.
Previous studies have shown that poor sleep can affect academic performance, as well as contribute to death and cases of heart disease and stroke.
For the study, researchers analysed 2,196 children.
The findings, published in the journal SLEEP, showed that one-third of children consistently adhered to age-appropriate bedtimes for ages five to nine.
Bedtime should provide enough of a “window” for the child to get an appropriate amount of sleep, even if the child does not fall asleep right away, said Buxton.
Future family interventions may need to include parental education about sleep health, particularly focusing on parents with low income and low education, Lee said, adding the need for research in childhood sleep behaviour and weight in later life.