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Nosebleed: Why It Happens And How To Stop It

The Kashmir Monitor




Nosebleed is medically known as Epistaxis. Nosebleeds can appear to be terrifying and scary, but nothing to worry about, as they rarely indicate any serious health problems/issues and can be safely treated at home. Nosebleeds can happen to anyone: children, pregnant women or elderly people. During nosebleed, blood flows from either one or both nostrils but it does not last any longer than a few minutes. Our nose consists small and delicate blood vessels which may bleed on any damage. Generally, nosebleeds are not serious, but frequent and heavy nose bleeds may indicate some serious health issues like high blood pressure or a blood clotting disorder or anaemia.

Read below to know some common causes, symptoms and treatment for nosebleeds.

Nosebleed can majorly be of two kinds:

Anterior nosebleed: It is a condition in which the blood flows down from the front part of the nose. It is very common and can happen to anyone and may not lead to any serious health issues. Such nosebleeds can be cured at home safely.

Posterior nosebleed: It is a condition in which the blood flows down from the back part of your nose and may further flow down to your throat. This is a rare condition and may indicate a serious health problem. This needs to be treated immediately by a doctor and should not be treated at home.

Causes of nosebleed

Blood vessels inside the nose are fragile and can be damaged easily. There are many causes of nose bleeding, which are not serious at all but the most common reasons of nosebleed can be:

1. Nose injury

2. Exposure to dry air

3. Scratching or picking of your nose

4. Dryness in nasal membranes

5. Presence of foreign bodies inside nose

6. Allergic reactions

7. Continuous sneezing

Other causes of nose bleeds which may be indicative of a serious health hazard:

1. Upper respiratory infection

2. High blood pressure

3. Blood clotting disorders

4. Bleeding disorder

5. Cancer

Most of the times, nosebleed do not require any medical attention, as it can be recovered at home. But if in any case nose bleed does not stop within 20-25 minutes, then immediate medical care is needed. This can be a case/sign of posterior nosebleed, which is a serious health problem.

How to stop nosebleed?

1. Normal breathing through your mouth while leaning forward can help in draining the blood.

2. Place a cold wet cloth or an ice bag on the bridge of your nose.

3. If nosebleed is caused by a foreign object, then going to a doctor would be helpful. This is also because you may end up hurting yourself more if you try to remove it without any supervision. Doctor will remove the foreign object with extreme care.

4. If you have anterior nosebleed then it can be treated securely at home. In order to stop nose bleed, sit with your face up and squeeze the soft part of your nose gently and keep squeezing it till 7-10 minutes and breathe from your mouth with your nostrils fully closed. Make sure, you do not sit with your face down as it may result in you swallowing the blood. After 10 minutes, check if blood is still flowing. If yes, then repeat the same till the bleeding stops.

If bleeding does not stop, then prefer seeing your doctor, as it can be the case of posterior nosebleed, which needs to be treated immediately.

Posterior nosebleed is rare and often indicates serious health issue. In posterior nosebleed you bleed from back of your nose which directly flows down the throat. Consult to your doctor immediately if you think you have posterior nosebleed.

How to prevent nosebleed?

1. Try keeping a humidifier in your house to keep the dryness away.

2. Use sprays or gels to keep nasal membranes moist.

3. Avoid scratching or picking your nose.

4. Avoid doing activities which may injure your nose or prefer wearing a head gear.

5. Consume aspirin moderately, as more consumption can lead to thinning of your blood and contribute in nosebleed.

6. Limit your intake of nasal decongestants. It may end up drying your nose passage and cause nosebleed.

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Dietary fat is good? Dietary fat is bad? Coming to consensus

The Kashmir Monitor



Which is better, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet — or is it the type of fat that matters? In a new paper featured on the cover of Science magazine’s special issue on nutrition, researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston Children’s Hospital, and colleagues with diverse expertise and perspectives on the issues laid out the case for each position and came to a consensus and a future research agenda.

The researchers agreed that no specific fat to carbohydrate ratio is best for everyone, and that an overall high-quality diet that is low in sugar and refined grains will help most people maintain a healthy weight and low chronic disease risk, reported.

“This is a model for how we can transcend the diet wars,” said lead author David Ludwig, professor in the Department of Nutrition at Harvard Chan School and a physician at Boston Children’s Hospital. “Our goal was to assemble a team with different areas of expertise and contrasting views, and to identify areas of agreement without glossing over differences.”

The authors laid out the evidence for three contrasting positions on dietary guidelines for fat and carbohydrate consumption:

1. High consumption of fat causes obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and possibly cancer, therefore low-fat diets are optimal.

2. Processed carbohydrates have negative effects on metabolism; lower-carbohydrate or ketogenic (very low-carbohydrate) diets with high fat content are better for health.

3. The relative quantity of dietary fat and carbohydrate has little health significance — what’s important is the type of fat or carbohydrate source consumed.

They agreed that by focusing on diet quality — replacing saturated or trans fats with unsaturated fats and replacing refined carbohydrates with whole grains and nonstarchy vegetables — most people can maintain good health within a broad range of fat-to-carbohydrate ratios.

Within their areas of disagreement, the authors identified a list of questions that they said can form the basis of a new nutrition research agenda, including:

1. Do diets with various carbohydrate-to-fat ratios affect body composition (ratio of fat to lean tissue) regardless of caloric intake?

2. Do ketogenic diets provide metabolic benefits beyond those of moderate carbohydrate restriction, and especially for diabetes?

3. What are the optimal amounts of specific types of fat (including saturated fat) in a very-low-carbohydrate diet?

Finding the answers to these questions, the researchers said, will ultimately lead to more effective nutrition recommendations.

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Hot bath may improve inflammation, metabolism: Study




If you are unable to exercise, a hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and blood sugar (glucose) levels, particularly in overweight men, suggests a new study.

Physical stress such as exercise can increase the level of an inflammatory chemical (IL-6), which activates the release of anti-inflammatory substances to combat unhealthily high levels of inflammation, known as chronic low-grade inflammation.

However, a hot-water immersion may “improve aspects of the inflammatory profile and enhance glucose metabolism in sedentary, overweight males and might have implications for improving metabolic health in populations unable to meet the current physical activity recommendations”, said researchers including Christof Andreas Leicht from the Loughborough University in the UK.

For the study, published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, the team included a group of sedentary, overweight men who participated in both hot-water immersion and ambient room temperature (control) trials separated by at least three days.

In the hot water trial, the volunteers sat immersed up to their necks in 102-degree Fahrenheit water. The research team measured the men’s heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature every 15 minutes throughout both the control and immersion conditions. Blood samples were taken again two hours after each session.

The researchers found that a single hot-water immersion session causes the elevation of IL-6 levels in the blood and increased nitric oxide production, but did not change the expression of heat shock protein 72 — another protein suggested to be important for health.

However, a two-week treatment period in which the men participated in daily hot-water baths showed a reduction of fasting blood sugar and insulin levels as well as improved low-grade inflammation at rest.

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A higher BMI causes depression even in the absence of other health problems: Study

The Kashmir Monitor



While previous studies have already established a link between obesity and depression, in a study that claims to have found the strongest evidence regarding the link between the two, researchers have found that obesity causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.

The research was published in the International Journal of Epidemiology.

“The team looked at UK Biobank data from more than 48,000 people with depression and compared them to more than 290,000 controls in the UK Biobank cohort of people born between 1938 and 1971, who have provided medical and genetic information. They used hospital admission data and self-reporting to determine whether people had depression”, University of Exeter’s website mentions.

The team separated the psychological component of obesity from the impact of obesity-related health problems using genes associated with higher BMI but lower risk of diseases like diabetes. In an interesting turn of events, it was found that these genes were just as strongly associated with depression as those genes associated with higher BMI and diabetes, which suggests that a higher BMI causes depression both with and without related health issues.

It was found that this effect was stronger in women than in men. “At the other ends of the BMI spectrum, very thin men are more prone to depression than men of normal weight and very thin women”, the study mentioned.

According to Professor Hypponen, Director of the Australian Centre for Precision Health, who co-led the study, “Our research shows that being overweight doesn’t just increase the risks of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease; it can also lead to depression”.

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