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Migraines: 7 Different Types Of Migraine Headaches

The Kashmir Monitor





Migraines are severe, recurring, and extremely painful headaches. Usually, migraines are accompanied by nausea, vomiting and blurriness in vision. It is suspected that migraines occur due to some activity in the brain. These activities in the brain can take place due to hormonal changes, emotional triggers or physical surrounding. Migraines can be also be caused due to a medicinal side effect. Migraine headaches can be identified by a throbbing pain on one particular side or the other. Usually, migraine headaches can be treated with enough sleep, reducing stress or physical exercise. But in extreme cases, surgery may be the ultimate cure for migraines. But before looking for the perfect cure, one should be able to identify the type of migraine they are suffering from.
Here are 7 main types of migraine headaches:
1. Migraines with aura
Aura refers to visual symptoms like seeing lines, shapes, blurriness and loss of vision. When a person suffering from migraines starts experiencing aura, they know that they are about to have a headache. Neurological symptoms appear generally 10-60 minutes before an actual headache which does not last for more than an hour.
2. Migraine without aura
This type of migraine is also called the common migraine. It is usually accompanied by nausea, confusion, blurred vision and fatigue. These migraine attacks usually last from 4 to 72 hours. Movement, generally, makes it worse.
3. Migraine without headache
It is similar to migraine with aura. It is accompanied by all aura symptoms like temporary loss of vision, nausea and vomiting but no headache. Fever, dizziness and unexplained pain in a particular part of the body can also categorise as an aura migraine without headache.
4. Migraine with brainstem aura
This type of migraine mainly affects children and adolescents. This form of migraine is also like Aura migraine with headache that originates from the brainstem area. It does not affect the motor functions of one’s body.
5. Hemiplegic migraine
Hemiplegic migraine is a rare but severe form of migraine which may cause temporary paralysis. The symptoms of hemiplegic migraine include vertigo, a pricking or stabbing sensation, speaking and vision problems. These symptoms may begin prior to the headache and persist during the headache. Hemiplegic migraine can be genetic.
6. Retinal migraine
Retinal migraine too is very rare. While experiencing retinal migraine, the patient may see colors and shapes. It may also make a person loose eyesight in one eye. The vision loss is temporary and usually lasts for about an hour.
7. Chronic migraine
Chronic migraine is characterized by headaches for over 15 days a month for a period of 3 months. Between these 15 days, 8 headaches are migraines. These migraines can take place with or without aura. They usually require predictive medications and behaviours to control. Such migraines are often disabling. Once the medication is stopped, not all chronic migraines may convert into episodic migraines.

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Hepatitis A Causes and Symptoms

The Kashmir Monitor



Generally speaking, hepatitis A is more common in parts of the planet that are developing. It’s for the fact that sanitation and food handling practices are by and large poor. However, medical experts say that living in developed countries can also put you at risk of having hepatitis A, but it’s really a rare occurrence.

Just like what’s mentioned earlier, hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus or HAV. It can be spread around by someone who has hepatitis A because he or she is a carrier of the virus behind it. It is said that a person with hepatitis A is most infectious about 2 weeks before he or she begins to experience signs and symptoms.

Here are some of the ways that hepatitis A is spread around:


Consumption of food that is prepared by a person who has hepatitis A. This is most especially true if he or she has not properly washed his or her hands.

Drinking of water that is contaminated with the hepatitis A virus.

Intake of raw or undercooked seafood obtained from contaminated water.

Close contact with someone who has hepatitis A. This includes having sexual intercourse with an infected person, especially when the rectal or anal area has been touched with the fingers, mouth or tongue.

Using illegal drugs, especially when paraphernalia contaminated with the hepatitis A virus are used.


Medical experts say that it may take a while before the various signs and symptoms associated with hepatitis A show up. They say that someone may experience them about 4 weeks after getting infected. It’s even possible for someone with hepatitis A to not experience any sign and symptom at all.

Some of the initial signs and symptoms of hepatitis A include:

Tiredness and malaise
Achy muscles and joints
Pain in the upper right section of the abdomen
Loss of appetite
Mild fever
Sore throat
Diarrhea or constipation
Hives or raised rash that’s itchy

These initial signs and symptoms associated with hepatitis A can last anywhere from a few days only to a couple of weeks. Afterwards, as the infection of the liver progresses, the following may be experienced by the individual:

Jaundice, which is the yellowing of the skin as well as the whites of the eyes (sclera)

Pale colored stools
Dark colored urine
Skin itching

Tenderness and swelling of the upper right section of the abdomen

Although it rarely happens, hepatitis A can cause liver failure. When such develops, the person who is infected may experience severe vomiting, frequent bruising, bleeding of the nose and gums, drowsiness and confusion.

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Busting myths around blood donation

The Kashmir Monitor



As per the World Health Organisation (WHO) norms, ideally, one per cent of the total population should regularly donate blood to meet the requirements, which is anywhere between 1% and 3% of country’s population that would require blood in a year.

Contrary to the myth about blood donations making a person weak or anaemic, the body replenishes the lost blood in a matter of a few days, say experts.

“A healthy bone marrow makes a constant supply of red cells, plasma and platelets, so there is no question of becoming weak, much less anaemic. It is a myth and should not deter people from donating blood,” says Dr RK Singal, chairman, internal medicine department, BLK super-speciality Hospital.


The donors can give either whole blood or specific blood components, as there is sophisticated equipment available these days that extract relevant components from blood and the rest of the blood can be transfused back to the donor.

As per the World Health Organisation (WHO) norms, ideally, one per cent of the total population should regularly donate blood to meet the requirements, which is anywhere between 1% and 3% of country’s population that would require blood in a year.

About 65% of India’s population is young and if this section donates blood regularly, chances of the country facing blood shortage will be remote. Hence, there is all the more reason for people, especially youngsters, to come forward and be regular blood donors.

How to prepare

Have enough fruit juice and water in the night and morning before you donate

Have a full meal 3 hours before donation; never on an empty stomach

Have some rest for about 10-15 minutes after donation

Have some snacks or a juice with high sugar content after donation

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Erectile dysfunction’s connection with lifestyle

The Kashmir Monitor



By Dr Anjani Kumar Agrawal

healthy-lifestyle-can-reverse-effects-of-hypertensionAll over the world, but perhaps more so in India, men are embarrassed to admit that they may have a problem getting or keeping an erection — a condition known as erectile dysfunction (ED).

All over the world, but perhaps more so in India, men are embarrassed to admit that they may have a problem getting or keeping an erection — a condition known as erectile dysfunction (ED). From my research, I have found a strong link between ED and stress. Other major causes include smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension or high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. My advice to these patients is — do not get even more stressed over this situation. Instead, focus on taking the right medication and making some changes to your lifestyle, so you can once again enjoy a satisfactory sexual life.



We normally diagnose ED and its underlying causes by asking the patient a few questions about his medical and sexual history. This is sometimes done by sharing a questionnaire with the patient. The questions that we ask are designed to help us understand the cause of ED in the particular patient.

We also do a physical exam, ask for certain blood tests to rule out other medical conditions responsible for erectile dysfunction, and recommend imaging tests (if required) to determine whether the person is physically able to have an erection or not.


Underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia (high cholesterol levels) can cause ED. In these cases, ED can be reversed once the patient starts treatment.

In my experience, many men suffer from ED because of work stress, family pressure and anxiety. So, changes in lifestyle with regular exercise, yoga, abstaining from alcohol and smoking, and proper counselling help in treating ED. Along with this, medicines for ED are usually prescribed for about 3 to 6 months by which time lifestyle changes start to take effect and the patient is physically and mentally healthier, which helps resolve the problem.

An estimated 16% to 25% of men experience ED at some point in their lives. I would urge them not to be embarrassed about it. Seek medical help from a urologist or andrologist; get the necessary advice/medication; and go on to enjoy a healthy, fulfilling sexual life.

The author of this article is Dr Anjani Kumar Agrawal, head, andrology, department of urology sciences, Max Smart Super Speciality Hospital, Saket

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