Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the most common health conditions that people in India suffer from. World Hypertension Day 2018 is organised by World Hypertension League with the theme “Know your numbers”, which focuses on making people more aware about high blood pressure. High blood pressure is lifestyle disease, which is caused by living a poor lifestyle, eating unhealthy and salty foods in excess and lack of exercise to name a few. This World Hypertension Day, we speak to Dr. Vivek K. Nambiar to know the nitty-gritties of high blood pressure, why is the incidence of the disease so high in India, the major causative factors of high blood pressure and much more.
This World Hypertension Day, Dr Vivek gives the following reasons for checking your blood pressure regularly:
1. High blood pressure or hypertension is the top life-taking lifestyle disease. It is very important to know about this disease because it is a silent killer. Hypertension does not give any symptoms.
2. Conditions like obesity and high blood sugar will all be characterised by a few common symptoms like feeling tired and fatigued all the time, frequent urination, infections and lethargy. However, there are no symptoms of the condition.
3. The only way to be aware of your blood pressure levels is by getting it measured regularly. All adults should get their blood pressure regularly. Cardiologist Dr Sameer Gupta says, “A person who is not suffering from hypertension and is above the age of 20, should get blood pressure checked once in 2 years if his/her blood pressure is found to be on normal levels. If you have pre-hypertension or someone whose blood pressure is usually on the higher end of normal levels, get your blood pressure checked every year. Hypertension patients who are on medicines should check their blood pressure a couple of times in a month to keep a check on fluctuations.”
4. This is not just for old people, but also for adults and young people. Blood pressure problems are becoming more common among the young because of change in lifestyle, eating habits, exercise habits and not getting adequate sleep.
5. If the condition is recognised at a very late stage, it can cause acute restlessness, stroke, damage to kidneys and vision. Hypertension can thus lead to damage of one or more organs if a person leaves it untreated for too long.
6. Hypertension is very common in India because of genetic tendencies for the condition here. Our dietary habits, which include excess salt consumption, make us more prone to risks of hypertension. Also, sedentary lifestyle habits in rural areas make the condition a very common problem in India. Excess intake of alcohol and regular smoking can make people more prone to risks of hypertension.
7. If you get hypertension at a young age, the complications can increase as you age with the condition. It can affect your heart and increase risks of heart disease. Kidney is affected very badly because of high blood pressure. In fact, hypertension is the most common cause of kidney failure.
8. The goal of observing World Hypertension Day is to make public more aware of the fact that they need to get their blood pressure checked regularly. The day is meant to make people understand about the silent nature of hypertension. This is why, the theme of World Hypertension Day 2018 is to find out the readings of your blood pressure.
9. The idea is to take maximum number of people to smaller clinics or medical camps where they can measure their blood pressure effectively. We need to find more and more people with hypertension and guide them regarding treatment of the disease.
10. Hypertension is one of the most underdiagnosed entities with no symptoms.
(Dr Sameer Gupta is Interventional Cardiologist at Metro Hospital, Noida and MP Heart Clinic, Greater Kailash)
(Dr. Vivek K. Nambiar is Head of Division of Stroke, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi)
Can Garlic Help In Controlling Cholesterol? Our Expert Has The Answer
High levels of bad cholesterol or LDL cholesterol in your blood can increase risks of heart disease. It is thus important to ensure that your cholesterol levels are under control at all times. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) are the two kinds of cholesterol , where the former is referred to as the bad cholesterol and the latter as good cholesterol. While cholesterol is made in the liver, there are certain foods that can increase cholesterol levels. These foods are primarily those high in saturated and trans fat. Similarly, there are foods that lower your cholesterol levels, and one such food item is garlic.
Garlic is a spice which is popular for its benefits on digestion, high blood pressure and inflammation to name a very few. However, there are some studies which talk about cholesterol improving properties of garlic as well.
WebMD says that garlic may reduce total cholesterol in the body by a few percentage points. This however, may only be for the short term. It further adds that garlic may prolong bleeding and blood clotting time. Thus, intake of garlic should be avoided before surgery or intake of any blood thinning drugs.
We ask clinical nutritionist Dr Rupali Datta about garlic and its cholesterol-reducing properties. She says, “Allicin is the active compound in garlic, which may be contributing to lowering cholesterol. However, it is more effective in controlling heart diseases vis a vis blood thinning and its anti-inflammatory properties. There are some studies which have talked about minor effect of garlic on cholesterol,” she says.
Foods that help in lowering cholesterol
Legumes are rich in minerals, fibre and protein. Some studies say that including legumes in your diet can lower bad cholesterol in the body.
Healthline mentions that some vegetables contain soluble fibre that can help in reducing cholesterol levels in the body. Vegetables like eggplants, carrots and potatoes can all be included in your diet to keep cholesterol and weight under control. They are good for heart health.
3. Berries and fruits:
Fruits are rich in soluble fibre that help in lowering cholesterol levels in the body. Berries and grapes contain plant compounds that can increase good cholesterol and reduce bad cholesterol in the body.
4. Almonds and walnuts:
Including nuts in your diet can be good for heart health. Nuts contain monounsaturated fats. Walnuts contain omega 3s and almonds contain L-arginine, which is an amino acid that helps the body make nitric oxide. This helps in regulating blood pressure.
5. Fatty fish:
Fatty fish like salmon, mackerel and tune are rich sources of omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 3s are good for heart health as they reduce inflammation and stroke risk, and increase levels of good cholesterol in the body.
(Dr Rupali Datta is Consultant Nutritionist at Fortis Escorts)
Most hip and knee replacements ‘last longer than thought’
Eight out of 10 knee replacements and six out of 10 hip replacements last as long as 25 years, said a large study from the University of Bristol.
This is much longer than believed, the researchers said, and the findings will help patients and surgeons decide when to carry out surgery, BBC reported.
To date, there has been little data on the success of new hips and knees.
But this Lancet research looked at 25 years’ worth of operations, involving more than 500,000 people.
Hip and knee replacements are two of the most common forms of surgery in National Health Service (NHS), but doctors often struggle to answer questions from patients on how long the implants will last.
Nearly 200,000 of the operations were performed in 2017 in England and Wales, with most carried out on people between 60 and 80 years old.
Dr. Jonathan Evans, orthopedic registrar, lead study author and research fellow at Bristol Medical School said, “At best, the NHS has only been able to say how long replacements are designed to last, rather than referring to actual evidence from multiple patients’ experiences of joint replacement surgery.
“Given the improvement in technology and techniques in the last 25 years, we expect that hip or knee replacements put in today may last even longer.”
As the aging population grows, and life expectancy rises, this becomes even more important, Evans added.
Chronic inflammation can lead to memory problems: Study
Acute inflammation, that results from injury and does not heal or is recurring, might lead to thinking problems, say experts. The report, which has been published in Neurology, further states that psychological stress and nagging infection can also trigger chronic inflammation.
In order to arrive at this result, blood tests on 12,336 men and women who were of the average age of 57, were conducted. These reports were then segregated and given a “inflammation composite score” based on factors like clotting, white blood cell count, and other tests. The cognitive facilities of the participants were also assessed through routine tests of verbal fluency, memory and processing speed. The study has been quoted in The New York Times.
After controlling for factors like age, blood pressure, heart disease, education, and many others, it was deduced that more the number of inflammatory factors, greater the chance of cognitive decline over 20 years of follow-up. Decline in memory seems to be strongly associated with inflammation.
“We know that dementia starts earlier than the appearance of symptoms,” Keenan A Walker, lead author and a postdoctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins said. “We’ve shown that levels of inflammation matter for dementia risk. Reducing chronic inflammation involves the same health behaviors that we already know are important for other reasons — regular exercise, healthy diet, avoiding excessive weight gain and so on,” Walker added.