Flavouring and additive ingredients used in e-cigarettes are more likely to increase inflammation and impair lung function, according to new research. E-cigarettes — popular battery-powered devices that simulate the act of smoking a traditional cigarette — dispense a vapour derived from liquid chemicals in a refillable cartridge. Researchers from the University of Athens found that short-term exposure to e-cigarettes was enough to cause lung inflammation similar or worse than that seen in traditional cigarette use.
The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, examined several groups of mice that received whole-body exposure to varying chemical combinations four times each day.
Each exposure session was separated by 30-minute smoke-free intervals.
One group was exposed to cigarette smoke, another with e-cigarette vapour containing propylene glycol and vegetable glycerol — an odourless liquid derived from plant oils, the third with e-cigarette vapour containing propylene glycol and nicotine and another group was exposed to e-cigarette vapour containing propylene glycol, nicotine and tobacco flavouring.
The findings suggested an increase in markers of inflammation, mucus production and altered lung function in the propylene, propylene plus nicotine and flavouring groups after three days.
In addition, two inflammation-producing proteins became elevated only in the flavouring group, which suggested that some flavouring components on the market may not be safe for even short-term use.
The level of oxidative stress — stress at a cellular level — in the flavouring group was equal to or higher than that of the cigarette group.
However, respiratory mechanics were adversely affected only in mice exposed to cigarette smoke and not to e-cigarette vapour after prolonged treatment.
“The observed detrimental effects in the lung upon (e-cigarette) vapour exposure in animal models highlight the need for further investigation of safety and toxicity of these rapidly expanding devices worldwide,” the researchers warned.
Beware! These Daily Habits Can Ruin Your Hair
Flawless hair is a dream of every girl. Perfect hair can complement your look and make you look perfect in no time. You might have tried multiple shampoos and hair care products to maintain your hair health. But there are certain habits which can unknowingly ruin your hair quality as well as quantity. Hair fall is the most common and noticeable consequence of these bad habits. So, from today do not spend a huge amount of money at the salon to take care of your hair. All you need to do is give up these bad habits to keep your hair healthy. You can also prevent hair fall by avoiding these habits.
Worst habits for hair
- Over styling
Styling might be a compulsory part of your daily routine to look perfect all the time. But it is one of the worst habits which can ruin your hair. Use of flat irons, curlers or blow dryers can promote hair fall and also make your hair dry and lifeless. It can also promote hair fall.
- Poor diet
Not just your overall health but your hair also requires the optimum amount of nutrients as well. You must ensure that you consume essential vitamins and minerals to keep your hair strong. Intake of proper diet will make your hair strong, lustrous and thick. Vitamin E is extremely beneficial for your hair. Add foods like almonds, amla, fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Frequent shampooing
Overuse of shampoo can also destroy your hair quality. Frequent shampooing can make your hair dry and brittle. Try not to wash your hair more than thrice a week. You should also choose the appropriate shampoo for your hair type.
- Brushing your hair the wrong way
Along with the right brush, you need to make sure that you brush your hair the right way. You should start with dividing your hair into two-four sections. Later brush your hair from bottom to top gently. Another tip which will help you promote hair health is- never comb wet hair. The moisture makes the hair follicles weak. So if you comb your hair wet, the stress of the cob breaks the hair easily.
- Poor iron intake
Iron is an essential nutrient required for healthy hair. Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of hair fall which people usually ignore. Iron promotes hemoglobin productions in the blood. Hemoglobin promotes hair growth and repairs the cells of the scalp. You can add food sources like leafy vegetables, tofu, beans, lentil, cashew or whole grains to your diet.
Alcohol causes significant harm to those other than the drinker: Study
People who are in close proximity or connection with alcoholics can experience harm because of their drinking, according to a study led by an Indian-origin scientist.
According to the research, published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, an estimated 53 million adults in the US experienced harm because of someone else’s drinking in the last 12 months.
Researchers led by Madhabika B Nayak of the Alcohol Research Group in the US analysed data of 8,750 adults who answered questions from two databases in 2015 — the National Alcohol’s Harm to Others Survey and the National Alcohol Survey.
They found that some 21 per cent of women and 23 per cent of men experienced harm because of someone else’s drinking.
These harms included threats or harassment, vandalism, physical aggression, harms related to driving, or financial or family problems, according to the study.
The specific types of harm experienced differed by gender. Women were more likely to report financial and family problems, whereas ruined property, vandalism, and physical aggression were more likely to be reported by men.
There is “considerable risk for women from heavy, often male, drinkers in the household and, for men, from drinkers outside their family,” the researchers said.
Additional factors, including age and the person’s own drinking, were also important.
People below 25 had a higher risk of experiencing harm from someone else’s drinking. Further, almost half of men and women who themselves were heavy drinkers said they had been harmed by someone else’s drinking, the study stated.
Even people who drank but not heavily were at two to three times the risk of harassment, threats, and driving-related harm compared with abstainers.
Heavy drinking was defined as drinking five or more drinks at a time for men or four or more drinks for women at least monthly.
“Control policies, such as alcohol pricing, taxation, reduced availability, and restricting advertising, may be the most effective ways to reduce not only alcohol consumption but also alcohol’s harm to persons other than the drinker,” Nayak said.
Ditch the difficult diet for healthy living
Fitness is very important. But any drastic change you make in your lifestyle will not be sustainable.
According to celebrity nutritionist Pooja Makhija, it is important to give up a difficult eating pattern as a difficult diet will not help.
“If you need to make permanent change, small tweaks will help you attain the goal. Only small tweaks and lifestyle hack will actually show the change. Keeping in mind the basic diet and healthy eating habits will help. Eating less doesn’t help but eating right does,” added Makhija, who came in support of the anthology “Healthy Binge” which will air in June on Sony BBC Earth.
She has shared some basic fitness tips:
- Never eat large meals in large gaps. Eat every 2 hours and in small quantities.
- Don’t do extreme physical activity. Do timely exercise and periodically.
- Never compromise on eating as it differs from person to person. The quality of the food is extremely important but the quantity is not.
- Consume water. Eating food is important but ignoring water will ruin all the efforts. Having water time to time is very important for the proper working of your body.
- Having a balanced diet is extremely important. Don’t go with trends but learn to eat balanced food that will help in the long run.
At the moment, she is working on her third book which “describes what to eat and what not to because a millennial should know their diet at very early stage”.