Turns out, children who take paracetamol during their first two years of life may be at a higher risk of developing asthma by the age of 18, especially if they have a particular genetic makeup.
According to a new research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress in 2018, the link between paracetamol use and asthma seemed strongest in those who had a particular variant of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene, GSTP1.
However, study author, Xin Dai, warned that the research showed only that there was an association between paracetamol and asthma, not that paracetamol caused the condition. She also found that another GST gene variant, GSTM1, was linked with reduced lung function.
GST genes contain the instructions for making enzymes that use an antioxidant called glutathione to mop up the effects of exposure to toxins in the body and the lungs. This mechanism helps to prevent damage to cells and inflammation.
“Paracetamol, on the other hand, consumes glutathione, reducing the body’s capacity to deal with toxic exposure.
We hypothesized that people who did not have full GST enzyme activity because of common genetic variations or deletions may be more susceptible to adverse effects on the lungs from paracetamol use,” explained Dai.
Dai and her colleagues investigated their hypothesis in 620 children who had been followed from birth to 18 years old as part of the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study.
The children had been recruited to the study before they were born because they were considered to be potentially at high risk of developing an allergy-related disease. They had at least one family member (mother, father or sibling) with a self-reported allergic disease (asthma, eczema, hay fever or a severe food allergy).
After their birth, a research nurse rang the family every four weeks for the first 15 months, and then at 18 months and at two years old to ask how many days in the previous weeks had the child taken paracetamol. When the children were 18 years old, they gave a blood or saliva sample, which was tested for variants of the GST genes: GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1. They were also assessed for asthma, and a spirometry test was performed to measure the amount of air inhaled and exhaled when breathing through a mouthpiece.
“We found that children with the GSTP1 Ile/Ile variant had 1.8 times higher risk of developing asthma by the age of 18 years for each doubling of the days of paracetamol exposure when compared to children who were less exposed,” said Dai.
“We also found effects in children who had a variant of GSTM1 in which one part is not functioning. In these children increasing paracetamol use was associated with small, but significant reduction in the amount of air they could forcibly breathe out in one second at 18 years,” added Dai.
The findings provided more evidence that paracetamol use in infancy may have an adverse effect on respiratory health for children with particular genetic profiles and could be a possible cause of asthma.
Reasons Why You Should Start Your Day With Ginger
Ginger is often used to add extra flavour to your tea. Ayurveda advises using ginger for various medicinal purposes. It has a strong taste and aroma which makes it can an appropriate element for your cup of tea. But you can add a change to your morning by adding ginger to it. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and something like ginger which is loaded with health benefits can make your breakfast healthier. Adding it your tea is the easiest way to consume ginger but you can also try other methods to consume ginger as well. Here are 5 reasons why you should add ginger to your morning routine.
Health benefits of ginger
- Aids in weight loss
Ginger can help you control your appetite. If you consume ginger every morning you will experience reduced urge to eat. The best way to consume ginger for weight loss is ginger water. To male ginger water, you need to boil cups of water first. Then add at least two slices of ginger to it. Boil it for some time and later strain the mixture. You can drink it both hot and cold according to your preference. Consumption of ginger water every morning will regulate blood sugar levels as well.
- Better hair and skin health
Regular consumption of ginger water every morning can help you achieve flawless hair and skin. Ditch all the chemical loaded products for skin and hair and switch to ginger. The antioxidants and the vitamins present in ginger are beneficial for both hair and skin. It will also ensure better protection against skin infections and diseases.
- Improves gut health
You can say goodbye to all your digestive disorders with ginger. Adding ginger to your breakfast will give you a strong digestive system. It will give you relief from indigestion, nausea and heartburn. You can prepare ginger water for better digestion as well. To enhance its taste and benefits simply add mint, lemon juice and one teaspoon honey to it.
- Reduces inflammation
Ginger is popularly known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Staring your day with ginger regularly will result in reduces inflammation for long term. Arthritis patients can add ginger to their breakfast without giving a second thought. You will also notice relief from other body pains and swelling.
- Better cholesterol levels
Ginger can manage your cholesterol levels as well. Increase in bad cholesterol can trigger the risk of various chronic diseases. It is extremely bad for your heart health. You can reduce your LDL (bad cholesterol) levels with ginger.
You can experiment various methods to use ginger in the morning. You can prepare ginger tea, ginger jam, ginger smoothie or can simply add it to your soup.
Testosterone replacement therapy can rise stroke risk in men
Aging men with low testosterone levels who take testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are at a greater risk of experiencing an ischemic stroke or a cardiac arrest, especially during the first two years of use, warn researchers.
Published in The American Journal of Medicine, the findings confirm concerns voiced by many health agencies about the potential risks associated with the treatment.
“Our findings show that the use of TRT was associated with an increased risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack or cardiac arrest during the first two years of use,” said Christel Renoux of McGill University in Canada.
According to researchers, there is a limited evidence on the long-term clinical benefits of TRT to effectively treat the modestly declining levels of endogenous testosterone levels of aging but healthy men.
“We strongly recommend that clinicians proceed with caution when considering prescribing TRT and first discuss both the potential benefits and risks with patients,” Renoux said.
The study analysed a large database of electronic medical records of patients enrolled in primary care practices in the UK and formed a cohort of 15,401 men, aged 45 years or older, with low testosterone levels (hypogonadism).
Users of TRT had a 21% greater risk of cardiovascular events compared with non-users, corresponding to an additional 128 events.
The increased risk appears to be transient, declining after two years of TRT use, which the investigators attribute to a phenomenon called “depletion of susceptible.”
High intensity interval training can improve health
An international research team has now found that bringing the science of high intensity interval training (HIIT) into everyday life could be the key to helping unfit, overweight people get more of the exercise they need to improve their health.
According to experts, from washing the car to climbing stairs or carrying groceries, each of these activities is an opportunity for short sharp bursts of ‘High Intensity Incidental Physical Activity’, HIIPA for short.
Speaking about it, study author Emmanuel Stamatakis said, “Regular incidental activity that gets you huffing and puffing even for a few seconds has great promise for health.”
In a study, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, Stamatakis and colleagues argue that when considering differences in physical capabilities by age, sex and weight, many daily tasks can be classified as ‘high intensity’ physical activity. That is, the kind of activity that gets you out of breath enough to boost your fitness.
According to them, including these kinds of activities into routines a few times a day will see significant health benefits for the majority of adults.
Professor Stamatakis added, “There is a lot of research telling us that any type of HIIT, irrespective of the duration and number of repetitions is one of the most effective ways to rapidly improve fitness and cardiovascular health and HIIPA works on the same idea.”
According to study authors the time commitment for HIIPA is close to zero minutes per day, and people could save even more time if their HIIPA involves brief walking sprints, or taking the stairs instead of waiting for the lift. Furthermore, other practical advantages are nil costs, no need for equipment and no concerns about a lack of skill or fitness.