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All you need to know about ‘Ocular Oncology’

The Kashmir Monitor




What is ocular oncology?
Eyes can also develop tumors just like other parts of the body. In general terms, we describe it as eye cancer.
When the healthy cells in or around the eye mutate and grow in numbers rapidly, they form a mass which is called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant.
Benign are those that do not have the capacity to spread beyond their site of origin and malignant are those which can spread to other organs of the body and can even be life-threatening.
Eye tumors are a threat to eyesight and can even have a serious effect on health and life.
Ocular Oncology is the specialty that deals with eye tumors. In India around 10,000 new eye cancer cases are diagnosed every year in which 20-30 percent are children and 70-80 percent are adults.
If the cancer is detected at an early stage and with appropriate treatment, a cure may be possible.
The eye has a unique structure and cancer in the eye can not only potentially wipe out the vision but also can endanger the eye and the life.
So, the treatment of eye tumor has to be done in a such a way so that the tumor is cured and also the vision and structure are saved.
The oncologist has the knowledge of cancer and the ocular oncologist has knowledge of the eye as well as cancer; thus, the ocular oncologist is the best choice to treat eye cancer.
The treatment in some situations involves team effort of an ocular oncologist, a pathologist, a medical oncologist, a radiation oncologist etc.
Parts of the eye
Eye also known as the organ of sight, collects light and sends messages to the brain to form a picture. The main parts of the eye are
• Eyeball
• Orbit (eye socket)
• Adnexal (accessory) structures, such as the eyelid and tear glands
The outer part of the eyeball is made up of three components sclera, retina, and uvea.
The sclera is situated at the outer wall of the eyeball. The retina is made up of thin-layered structure that lines the eyeball and sends information from the eye to the brain.
And the uvea nourishes the eye. Retina and uvea contain blood vessels.
The uvea comprises of three parts: Iris- It’s the colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye.
Ciliary body- Muscular tissue that produces the watery fluid in the eye and helps the eye focus.
Choroid- It’s a layer of tissue that is under the retina that has connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (coloured) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor inside the eye.
Melanoma is the most common eye cancer that grows from structures within the eyes in adults, and Retinoblastoma in children.
Retinoblastoma is most often detected in children younger than six years of age. It starts as a small tumor in the retina and can grow to involve all layers of the eye and even can spread to the brain.
(The writer is Director, Medical Services, Centre for Sight Hospital, Hyderabad)

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These Nutritious Breakfasts Can Give A Kick Start To Your Day: Do Try Them!

The Kashmir Monitor



Breakfast is undoubtedly the most important meal of the day. It is the meal which kick-starts your metabolism and helps you burn calories throughout the day. Not only is it important for people who are trying to lose weight, it is simply important for a person to stay fit and healthy. Breakfast is the one meal which can give you the energy to do things and focus at your work and school. WebMD says that including breakfast in your diet can have positive effects on your memory and concentration.

Following are some breakfast options suggested by Delhi-based nutritionist Pooja Malhotra, which can give a boost your energy and also keep you warm during the chilly winter months.

Try these healthy breakfast options right now!


1. Stuffed rotis

Winter is the time when a variety of vegetables are in season. Stuffed rotis or paranthas made from methi (fenugreek), mooli (radish), gobi (cauliflower), matar (peas) or gajar (carrots) can all make for a delicious and wholesome winter breakfast. You can cook them with ghee (make sure you use it in the right quantity) and eat them with pickle and curd. Stuffed rotis are essentially the traditional Indian breakfast which people have been having for years. Prepare them as your grandmother used to prepare and enjoy them throughout winter.

2. Palak or beetroot roti with mint raita

Palak or spinach is a leafy geen veggie with more health benefits than you can count in your fingers. Similar is the case with beetroot, which is a root vegetable which is incredibly low in calories and is a great source of essential nutrients like fibre, folate and Vitamin C. Beetroot also contains nitrates and pigments which can help in controlling your blood pressure and may improve your overall athletic performance.

3. Egg parantha or scrambled eggs with chapati

Now that is a protein-rich breakfast which can help you keep full for longer. Prepare egg paranthas or eat scrambled eggs with roti for the perfect blend of protein, fat and carbs in your breakfast. Also, do not separate the yolk from egg white. A whole egg will provide you with all essential nutrients.

4. Bajra roti with beetroot raita/bajra khichdi

Bajra is a healthy grain which can be included a weight loss diet as well. You can either make a dough of bajra flour or prepare bajra khichdi as a healthy breakfast option. Bajra or millets has properties that can help in stabilising cholesterol levels in the body. Being rich in fibre, the grain is great for digestion and makes for a healthy breakfast option during winter.

(Pooja Malhotra is a nutritionist based in Delhi)

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5 Super Healthy And Warm Drinks To Keep You Hydrated During Winter

The Kashmir Monitor



Are the teas and coffees failing to keep you warm during the chilly winter? Then need not worry as we are right here with multiple options for warm and comforting drinks during winter. Warm drinking options are important to keep you hydrated during winter. Staying hydrated during summer seems to be way easier as cold and healthy drinks are aplenty. The easiest way to stay hydrated during summer is to simply gulp down a bottle of water. But in winter, the body is usually in need of something which keeps us warm and on-the-go. Keep reading if you want some alternative warm drinks instead of sipping on a third our fourth cup of coffee.

Drinks to keep you warm and hydrated during winter

Turmeric latte:


Well, this is nothing but our very own haldi doodh. It is the traditional drink which is taken when a person is suffering from cold or fever. It is a healing drink which can naturally detox your body and even strengthen your bones.

Ginger, honey, lemon tea:

Yes, this is another traditional drink which can be taken in warm form as well. You can create a tea concoction by adding ginger, honey and lemon to water and bring to a boil. It can make for a refreshing and warming drink during the chilly winter months.

Hot mulled cider:

All you need to do is add cardamom, peppercorns, star anise, ginger, lemon and cloves to apple cider vinegar. Add a tinge of all these ingredients in a cup of ACV and heat it in low flame. The drink is going to make for a flavourful companion to you and your favourite book by the fireplace.

Vegetable/chicken/bone broth or soup:

Soups or broths are filling and extremely warming during the cold winter months. You can either prepare steaming hot vegetable soup or broth or chicken soup or bone breath. Broths and soups are fluids which can help you hydrated during winter while also boosting your immunity and protecting your from catching a cold or infection. Just make sure that their preparation is light and healthy.

Vanilla-almond steamer:

Now this is a toasty treat you all have been craving! All you need is some warm milk, cinnamon, vanilla and some almonds. This velvety winter drink is going to be your all time favourite! What’s more is that you can prepare it beforehand and have it when you’re ready for a warm treat for yourself.

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Fasting can improve overall health, study suggests

The Kashmir Monitor



Fasting influences the circadian clock and fasting-driven cellular responses, which together work to achieve fasting-specific temporal gene regulation.

Fasting can lead to improved health and provide protection against ageing-associated diseases, a recent study suggests.

According to the research, fasting affects circadian clocks in the liver and skeletal muscle, causing them to rewire their metabolism, which can ultimately lead to improved health and protection against ageing-associated diseases. The study was published recently in Cell Reports.


The circadian clock operates within the body and its organs as intrinsic time-keeping machinery to preserve homeostasis in response to the changing environment. And, while food is known to influence clocks in peripheral tissues, it was unclear, until now, how the lack of food influences clock function and ultimately affects the body.

“We discovered fasting influences the circadian clock and fasting-driven cellular responses, which together work to achieve fasting-specific temporal gene regulation,” said lead author Paolo Sassone-Corsi.

“Skeletal muscle, for example, appears to be twice as responsive to fasting as the liver,” Paolo asserted.

According to the researchers, fasting is able to essentially reprogram a variety of cellular responses. Therefore, optimal fasting in a timed manner would be strategic to positively affect cellular functions and ultimately benefiting health and protecting against ageing-associated diseases.

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January 2019
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