Blood continues to be splattered in Kashmir streets. Over the past some time hardly a day passes when deaths are not reported from one or the other part of the valley. Over the past one 20 people have died in different incidents of violence. Though majority of them are militants but civilians do also form a fair share of these deaths. The killing of a senior functionary of Tehreek-e-Hurriyat, Hafizullah Mir in south Kashmir’s Achabal area is quite a high profile of these killings. Mir, the district president of the Tehreek, was gunned down outside his house at Badru-Akingam on Tuesday morning. He was recently released from jail after two years of imprisonment under Public Safety Act for leading post-Burhan Wani street rebellion in his area. The same day four militants and an army soldier were killed in a fierce clash at Nadigam in Shopian district. Two civilians were done to death by militants for being “informers” of security forces. Since these are not isolated incidents but a continuous process for the last three decades, human deaths have become a normal business in Kashmir. It is the bereavement for all. If today it is in some part of south Kashmir, tomorrow it could anywhere in central or north Kashmir. There is no time table or calendar for these uncontrolled deaths. Of course, south Kashmir is the worst affected. The gruesome incident has shocked the entire valley and people are fuming under rage and anger. When Governor’s rule was imposed in the state, after the un-ceremonial exit of Mahbooba Mufti, direct threats to Kashmiri people were issued through studio discussions on different TV channels. In one of the debates on India’s most rabid news channels where retired army generals mostly express their opinions was said “aik aik ko mariege, chun chun kar marienge”. They projected Governor’s rule as that of martial law which is a serious reflection on the Governor itself. It is not going overboard to say that central government’s power-driven policy is making peace a difficult proposition in Kashmir. One had thought that Prime Minister Narendra Modi would pick up threads from where his ‘guru’ Atal Bihari Vajpayee had left. Vajpayee, for all his initiatives, was a man of peace. Despite extreme provocations, he never shut the doors of dialogue, neither even with Pakistan nor with the Hurriyat. In fact, he was the first Prime Minister to have initiated dialogue with Hurriyat Conference. The Mirwaiz-led Hurriyat Conference held two rounds of talks with Vajpyee’s deputy L K Advani in January and March 2004. Vajpayee’s dialogue mantra continued with Pakistan despite war in Kargil. After Vajpayee, Congress Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh also followed the policy of dialogue.
Hurriyat leaders, barring Syed Ali Geelani, held several rounds of talks with Manmohan Singh. He even allowed Hurriyat leaders to travel to Pakistan to hold talks with Pakistani leadership (then President Gen Musharaf). Though nothing concrete happened in resolving the issue but one could, at least, feel and experience peace on the ground. In the past three decades Kashmir had never been as peaceful as then. There had, also, been occasions (as claimed by former Pakistan foreign minister Khursheed Kasuri) when chances of resolution of the conflict had become real. The immediate effect of Vajpayee’s moves was restoration of peace on borders with Pakistan. A ceasefire was agreed upon between the two countries which quite religiously observed till recent past. It was after advent of Modi as Prime Minister of India that things began to move in reverse direction. The daily deaths are indicative of what is in store for future in Kashmir. The absence of statesman like Vajpyee is highly felt in New Delhi. Vajpyee would never fall to any false propaganda, either raised by media or people in his own establishment. He would not mind going against the wind. The present dispensation is not even a pale shadow of Vajpayee. The disastrous about the present government policy (foreign as also internal) is formulated in TV studios. Prime Minister Modi has to rethink this policy. His hard-line stance might be benefitting his party electorally but it is having adverse effect on India’s image world over.
World human rights day and Kashmir
Each year, Human Rights Day is observed all over the world, especially by the oppressed nations on December 10, as on this very day in 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The day is also celebrated in Kashmir where protests, demonstrations, seminars and conferences usually mark it. But the people in power have always played as villains in curbing such activities. In contrast, the day—in the rest of the world—is observed to protect the rights of the people. That makes Kashmir quite differently exceptional. It is not going overboard to say that animals have more rights than humans in Kashmir. Last year former MLA Engineer Rasheed and his supporters led a march of animals-a mule, dog, goat and a cow with cards slung on their necks; animals have more rights than the people in Kashmir, he only but highlighted what was evident. Srinagar municipality, a few years back, came up with a plan to restrict the growing dog population—which had grown to disturbing proportions (reportedly 2 lakh), the animal ‘lovers’ all across India made hue and cry against the plan. Many of them including BJP leader Manika Gandhi barged into Srinagar to protect the dogs. One has never heard Manika Gandhi or any other animal lover ever raising voice against the rights violations of humans in Jammu and Kashmir. In the past 30 years, thousands of people have been killed, maimed and jailed by government forces. Around 10000 people are reported to have gone missing after their arrest by security forces, and nobody knows their whereabouts. The systematic killings continue unabated but discreet silence is maintained in the name of national interest. In 2008 and 2010 and 2016 around 300 persons, most of them young boys, were killed in disproportionate use of force by the police and CRPF to quell street protest. The brutality played in Kashmir streets was enjoyed like some action film. International human rights organizations like Amnesty International and Asia Watch besides some civil rights individual and groups within India have censured India for its decimal human rights record. Lately, United Nations too have come out with a damning report of anti human acts of security forces in Kashmir. The irony is that the violators of these rights have been given legal protection under Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSA). It is very sad state of affairs in Jammu and Kashmir that any demand for revocation of AFSPA is seen as ‘anti national’. Just a feeble mention of the demand gives belly bouts to the whole media, political and security establishments all across the country. On occasions it appears that some sections are deriving sadistic pleasure from the miseries of the people of jammu and Kashmir and they want to keep them under check for ever. Jammu and Kashmir is presently one of the most highly militarized regions in the world. The history of military violence—disappearances, shootings, extrajudicial killings, torture, arson, and rape—has touched virtually every home and family in Kashmir. The total number of those killed, maimed, and otherwise harmed will probably never be known. To date, no one has been held accountable for these atrocities. Personnel responsible for such crimes enjoy impunity under AFSPA.
Soldiers who commit violence against women get away with it by invoking the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act. People live in permanent fear worrying every moment for their lives property and honour. The so called representative governments led by National Conference, Congress, PDP and BJP on different occasions are equally guilty of committing crimes against the people of Jammu and Kashmir. When out of power, these parties, barring BJP, would demand withdrawal of AFSPA but back in power they would plead for its continuation. This duplicity and hypocrisy by the NC and PDP is condemnable in every sense of term.
The Drabu drop scene
In politics, as said, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way. Dr Haseeb Drabu has finally bid adieu to the PDP. On Thursday, Drabu sent his resignation letter to the PDP president Mehbooba Mufti calling it a day with the PDP. It is not known whether Drabu has bid adieu to his political career as well but the way he was treated by the PDP over the past one year, it is not unreasonable for him to be feeling cynical about politics. Drabu may not be a political saint or sage but he definitely gave PDP a meaning, both, in terms of politics and governance. PDP, for all probabilities, was founded on vague and nebulous ideas with no clear direction and outlook. The slogan of so called Self Rule was simply a misnomer with no party leader, including Mufti and his daughter little knowing what it meant. The slogan was borrowed from Pakistan President Gen Parvaiz Musharraf’s four point formula but Drabu gave it the shape of ideological frame and document. Before it, PDP would cross all borders in search of identity. From extreme separatist position to ultra-nationalist stand, PDP leadership, more particularly Mehbooba Mufti, tried every trick in the book to invent a new identity, way away from her past baggage. She revealed it on the floor of the state assembly during previous NC-Congress rule that Haseeb Drabu (he was Chairman, J&K Bank then) had drafted the document of Self-Rule for PDP. Indeed, it provoked a serious reaction from NC legislators in the House. Many people believe that this became a drop scene for Drabu’s removal as J&K Bank Chairman. Mufti many a time told the press that Drabu was the author of all the election manifestos of PDP. What prompted Mehbooba Mufti then to throw Drabu out of the cabinet should be read and understood in the proper context. Nobody can deny this fact that Mehbooba Mufti was going through a serious crisis of self-image after the death of her father Mufti Mohammad Sayeed. The BJP’s aggressive positioning and posturing on key issues directly related with the sentiments of the state’s majority community had taken heavy toll on her image. No doubt PDP, in real, owes its popularity and rise mostly to Mehbooba Mufti. But this too is an undisputable fact that the fall of PDP has also begun with her. One had expected her to take advantage of the Chief Minister’s office and strengthen her position as a credible and dependable voice of Kashmir.
But she, for all probabilities, proved a disaster. She could not be even a pale shadow of her yester-year’s self. Embarrassment and humiliation had become core of BJP’s agenda of governance with PDP. Dropping Drabu from the cabinet was her desperate attempt to remake her image. It was Haseeb Drabu who wove the alliance with the BJP twice paving way for Muftis—first Mufti Mohammad Sayeed and now Mehbooba—to take control of the state. Mufti, known as a master planner with astute sense of politics, gave no leverage to BJP to dictate terms. However, his death on January 7, 2015, virtually dealt a severe blow to the PDP.A section of PDP leadership began to hobnob with the BJP to form the government bypassing Mehbooba caused added damage to whatever the remains of the PDP. Sensing coup, Mehbooba again fell back upon Drabu to save the day for her. However, the same section of the PDP leadership crafted a narrative of “Drabu being a ‘BJP-man, RSS-man, a Delhi-man’. Ironically, Mehbooba not only allowed this smear campaign against Drabu swell but also adopted those very people in her coterie who had engineered coup against her. Drabu negotiated power with BJP for Muftis, not for himself. He did not do it by himself. He had the party’s and leadership’s (Mufti Mohammad Sayeed and Mehbooba Mufti) instructions and mandate. PDP, more particularly Mehbooba Mufti cannot be more dishonest and ungracious than seeing the man who brokered power for her out of the party.
Over the centuries, Quranic concepts of an egalitarian human society have either been forgotten, or diluted through simple-mindedness, narrowness of thought and need for political mileage. Scholarship and discourse have centred on rituals and questionable ahadith. Culture and traditions have replaced religion.Today, much of what is practised in the Muslim world bears little resemblance to real Islam. It is time for Muslims to revert to the Quran with the aim to understand it more comprehensively.According to Dr Fazlur Rahman, the most significant ethical themes in the Quran are iman, Islam and taqwa, all of which are closely linked. ‘Iman’ primarily means to be safe, derived from ‘to be at peace’ and is used in the meaning of having faith in God and His message. Iman is an ‘act of the heart’, a decision to accept God totally and be at peace. This faith is not without knowledge, nor is it dependent upon it. It bonds the mind and knowledge.
According to the Quran, intellectual knowledge is not sufficient for faith, but equally, a human being cannot be guided without knowledge. Also, faith that does not result in actions is completely useless. To have faith with rationality, to constantly develop one’s knowledge and strengthen faith and to act out the faith reinforces one’s imanduring life.Faith and surrender purify a human soul.
The second concept — Islam — means ‘whole’, ‘integrity’, ‘peace’ and ‘surrender’. A Muslim is one who becomes complete by surrendering himself or herself to God. Nature is ‘Muslim’ because it obeys the laws of God. The term ‘Islam’ was formally given to the religion after the Muslims established themselves in Madina, and both Makkan and Madani verses speak of iman and Islam with the same meanings. “Those whom Allah (in His plan) willeth to guide, – He openeth their breast to Islam. …” (6:125).
Both bestow peace, security and integrity upon a Muslim. This equivalence is a departure from the conventional understanding that iman is belief and Islam is comprised of the obligations of prayers, fasting etc. It does mean, however, that Islam is the externally visible manifestation of iman and one has to be grounded in iman in order to express it outwardly. The two, therefore, imply each other. One cannot exist without the other. Islam relieves humans of the fear of everything else except fear of displeasing God, for the surrender to Him means they sense His presence everywhere and all the time.
‘Taqwa’ means fear of God, righteousness, piety and responsibility towards self and the world. It implies meanings similar to iman and Islam, comprising both faith and surrender. The rites of Haj must be carried out with due consideration for taqwa, deep from the heart, lest they become mechanical movements; behaviour towards the enemy should be with taqwa and collaboration with each other should be based on taqwa. One can only strive for taqwa, not achieve it totally. It is the best garment one can wear (7:26) and the best provision for the future (2:197). It is a protective shield against sin and evil. It is fear of one’s inclination towards temptation and human weaknesses that drive one to errors.
Taqwa includes self-evaluation-cum-correction, accompanied by seeking forgiveness from God and asking for guidance and light. The recognition that God will judge human beings after death will ensure that life in this world is not lived for the moment, but has longer-term goals.Simultaneously, a person has the opportunity to judge himself or herself every moment and develop self-awareness through taqwa. In this manner, ‘God-awareness’ is created through awareness of one’s own weaknesses and efforts to correct them. This rising above small-mindedness and preoccupation with earthly desires is what takes a person towards taqwa. God’s purpose in creation of humans is their tazkiya (purification) through imanand Islam and this moves them towardstaqwa and enables them to be true vicegerents of God. Faith and surrender purify a human soul and enhance its taqwa. The reverse is also true.