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The Chip That Changed The World – 60 years of voyage and as yet going

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By Jawaaz Ahmad

One of the empowering influences that has extremely changed our lives over the most recent 60 years was being the fruitful advancement of semiconductors or microchips as some other individuals call it. What’s more, it has gone from being an inconceivably basic gadget that was utilized – I recollect in the beginning of microchips individuals promoted a two transistor radio, a three transistor radio. Also, in light of the fact that they were supplanting what used to be called tubes. Be that as it may, at that point the business moved quickly towards reconciliation. So we made the coordinated circuit not long after we made the chip. And the majority of that simply detonated regarding the applications that they went into.
What’s more, it is evaluated today that the normal Kashmiri from the time they get up early in the day to the time he goes to bed gets by one way or another uncovered and contacts something on the request of 500 microchips. So you can consider it contacting 500 PCs. You’re most likely not mindful you did that but rather, you know, each time you get in your vehicle, your vehicle can conceivably have more than 100 microchips in the car gadgets. So it’s around us all over. Our telephones, obviously, our workstations, our iPads – those things we’re currently encompassed by this innovation. What’s more, the effect that it has been tremendous? I utilize one model just to show how tremendous of an effect it has made.
During the 60s people made a thing that was known as a muscle vehicle. What’s more, you could get 300 drive out of the motor yet the cost of single digit kilometres per litre. What’s more, individuals were driving them around yet that was the days in which gas was 20 pennies a litre. All things considered, today when you take a gander at a vehicle today you can get 300 strength, a similar torque you got previously, and you get at least 30 kilometres for each litre on the vehicle. The proficiency of that happened through gadgets and because of the microchip. Since now it can detect the temperature of the vehicle, the surrounding of the vehicle, the barometric weight of the vehicle. You can detect every one of these things and makes the suitable fuel blend and everything important to streamline the consuming of that fuel. Furthermore, it goes past that. It entirely is utilized to, obviously, control and limit the toxins that really can harm the air so they’re much more clean.
A little electronic part that has caused one of most emotional outpourings of mechanical advancement in mankind’s history turned 60 a week ago. The incorporated circuit, otherwise called the semiconductor chip, has released change equivalent to the Industrial Revolution by making the PC insurgency and the computerized age conceivable.
Today there are significantly more chips on earth than individuals. Surrounding us, a great many them are enthusiastically at work – in PCs, telephones, TVs, printers, copiers, CD players, PlayStations, autos, trains, planes, in all gadgets.
Without them, there would be no iPod, no Blackberry. There would be no digital computer phone International orbiter or the Edwin Hubble area Telescope. There would be no Apple, Intel, Samsung, Nokia, Microsoft or Google; no semiconductor Valley; no multibillion-dollar semiconductor business. There would be no Internet.
At the point when Jack Kilby concocted the incorporated circuit at Texas Instruments on Sept. 12, 1958, hardware still implied for the most part vacuum tubes. Transistors – little electronic switches equipped for enhancing current – had been designed about 10 years sooner, however were as yet not broadly utilized. Keep perusing the primary story . In 1906, Lee de Forest had found that an energized work put between two cathodes in vacuum could enhance electrical flow and go about as a switch. Vacuum tubes were conceived and before long wound up crucial in radios and the quickly growing phone framework. Amid World War I, a large portion of a million vacuum tubes were made each year by Western Electric; before the finish of the war, the number had multiplied to 1 million.
The pinnacle of vacuum tube innovation was the main advanced PC, ENIAC, worked in 1946. ENIAC was a beast of a machine, gauging in excess of 30 tons and involving somewhere in the range of 100,000 sections, which included 18,000 vacuum tubes. It filled an expansive room – the machine was about 100 feet long, 10 feet high and 3 feet down. It devoured an astounding 200 kilowatts of electrical power – legend has it that when ENIAC was turned on, the lights in western Philadelphia darkened. A cylinder would bomb each couple of days or somewhere in the vicinity, and would need to be supplanted. That was the issue with vacuum tubes – they devoured a gigantic measure of intensity and flopped frequently.
In the mid-1940s, researchers at AT&T’s Bell Labs, predicting the issue with vacuum tubes, made a group to discover a substitution. The objective was to make a strong state gadget that would have no vacuum, no fibres and no moving parts. The group wager on semiconductors – novel materials whose physical properties were simply starting to be comprehended.
By December 1947, Bell Labs analysts had struck gold. Transistors definitely lessened the power expected to run electronic circuits. In any case, a circuit still should have been collected out of individual transistors and different segments, for example, resistors and capacitors that must be associated together with wires and bind. A solitary defective association implied that the circuit would not work.
Kilby’s progressive thought was to make all the distinctive segments of a circuit out of a similar level square of semiconductor material. In addition to the fact that this would dispose of wires and defective associations, it would make the whole circuit considerably more reduced. Kilby shown his first “incorporated circuit” on Sept. 12, 1958. It worked impeccably.
A half year later, in California, another architect, Robert Noyce, autonomously thought of making an incorporated circuit. Noyce’s chip was more qualified to be produced in huge numbers, and soon he was a piece of a youthful organization called Intel.
In this way was propelled an insurgency. The principal chip-based PC was the main U.S. Aviation based armed forces PC, worked in 1961. The genuine capability of the coordinated circuit was demonstrated when Texas Instruments disclosed the pocket number cruncher. Already number crunchers had been cumbersome gadgets that should have been connected to electrical mains. The pocket number cruncher, little enough to hold in one’s palm, had a chip inside and batteries were sufficient to control it.
Advancement was quick from that point. Many have effectively known about Moore’s law, which has turned into a mantra of the computerized age. First advanced by the Intel prime supporter Gordon Moore during the 1960s, it says that the handling intensity of a chip duplicates like clockwork, while the value falls significantly. For over four decades, Moore’s law has held, driving staggering development and scaling down – and riches.
As Moore called attention to once, “If the car business progressed as quickly as the semiconductor business, a Rolls Royce would get an a large portion of a million kilometers for each litre, and it is less expensive to discard it than to stop it.”
Today, a cutting edge chip contains in excess of a billion parts stuffed into a region the extent of a human fingernail.
The inquiry is whether the semiconductor business can continue this pace. Further expanding the preparing intensity of chips is ended up being risky as certain basic physical hindrances are being come to. In the meantime, new outskirts are opening up. The mission is on to make chips that are controlled by light rather than power, which will empower a lot quicker PCs.
As you switch on the TV or answer your cell phone or sit at your PC to surf the Internet today, stop for one moment to fete the stunning chip that has made everything conceivable. So out of the blue in a brief timeframe, you know, 60 years we’ve gone in car hardware to have this massive effect on what a vehicle is. You know, in case you’re presently taking a gander at commercials for a vehicle on TV, they don’t generally publicize the motor any longer or anything like that. They promote the way that it has a touch screen cushion, that it has a navigational framework, it has – so it publicizes the things that are altogether founded on these microchips. What’s more, that is only one model. It continues forever in different fields like human services, climate projections, and so on. So it’s unavoidable and omnipresent in our lives more than we understand.
The author hold M. Tech in VLSI Design and Embedded Systems from Visveswaraya Technological University. He can be reached at: jawaaz.ab6@gmail.com)

 
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Opinion

Time to rebuild India’s secularism

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By Harsh Mander

There is much that lies badly broken in India today. The economy desperately needs to be repaired, as do rural distress, the job crisis and the free-falling rupee. The country’s institutions demand urgently to be rebuilt — the media, police, judiciary, universities, the planning process, the Election Commission of India. But above all, if there is one thing that stands most dangerously damaged, it is our constitutional pledge of a secular democracy. What are the prospects of rebuilding this?

Listen carefully to the speeches in the shrill summer election campaign which has just come to a halt. From their podiums, Opposition leaders spoke of everything else — the agony of farmers, unemployed youth, suspect defence deals, crony capitalism and indeed crony institutions. But rarely did they speak of lynching, of violence against Muslims, Christians and Dalits, of the fear which has become normalised in their daily lives, of our wrecked social contract of equality and harmony. And never did they speak of secularism.

 

The imagination of secularism in the Indian Republic was rooted in its singularly pluralist civilisational ethos, in the lives and work of Ashoka and Akbar, in the teachings of Buddha, Kabir and Nanak. It was illuminated by our struggle for freedom, in the humanist and egalitarian convictions of Gandhi and Ambedkar, Maulana Azad and Nehru. It was the central iridescent idea: that this newly-freed country would belong equally to all its people. People of no religion, no language, no caste, no ethnicity, no gender, no class would be entitled to lay claim to the country more than any other.

Secularism is the soul of India’s Constitution. Today the letter of this Constitution still remains unaltered, but its soul is mangled and choked. Not just the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP); even Opposition parties seem to have accepted that India is no longer the secular country born of the legacy of India’s freedom struggle, but a majoritarian Hindu country. In this new India, people of minority religions, castes and gender are second-class. Their safety and well-being are dependent now on the consent and will of the majority upper-caste, patriarchal Hindu, and the dictates of this Hindu are interpreted and violently mediated by the ideology of Hindutva.

It is a grave mistake to frame the 2019 general election as a battle of Narendra Modi against the rest. This is how Prime Minister Modi, referring to himself repeatedly in the third person, has framed this bitter electoral contest. This is how the Opposition has fought the electoral battle, of Mr. Modi versus the rest. This is how the majority of Indian voters view this combat.

However, the electoral battle waged around the country is truly a different one. On one side stands the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and on the other is the secular idea of the Indian Constitution. Mr. Modi is a formidable, pugnacious, tireless and immensely popular mascot of the Hindu supremacist ideology of the RSS; and his image is powerfully buttressed by a pliant corporate media and dizzying levels of spending on a public relations blitz to manufacture consent. But the central danger to secular India is not the personality of Mr. Modi. It is the penetration of the RSS into every institution of the country, into every political party, the media, the university, the judiciary, the civil services, and most dangerously into mainstream everyday social life of every ordinary Indian.

In the RSS worldview, Muslims and Christians are not authentically Indian, their loyalty to the Indian nation is and will always remain suspect; therefore, they need to be tamed, to be continuously shown their subordinate status in the Indian polity and society. It is for this reason that virulent hate speech was so central to this election campaign, with Mr. Modi mocking his rival, Congress president Rahul Gandhi, for seeking election in a constituency in which he would have to depend in part on Muslim and Christian voters; and other BJP leaders and candidates raging against the threats of the ‘green virus’ and ‘termites’. It is for this reason that BJP president Amit Shah pledges to extend the National Register of Citizens to all parts of India, while ensuring citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists from other parts of the subcontinent; in this way brazenly turning on its head the core constitutional idea that a person’s religion is irrelevant to her rights to equal citizenship. And it is for this reason that lynching of Muslims and attacks on Christian places of worship, openly valorised by ruling party leaders, became the overarching symbols of the newly forged relationship of the majoritarian Hindu state with its now inferior religious minorities.

If Mr. Modi is returned with an emphatic majority when ballots are counted on May 23, as many exit polls predict, this will herald that India has fallen deep into a cold hard place of hate and fear. It will signal that a significant majority of Hindus endorse the Hindu supremacist ideology of the RSS. It will indicate the popular abandonment of the secular and humane vision of India’s Constitution, and its replacement by a violent and chauvinist majoritarian Hindu nationalism, which is suspicious and hateful in its relations with people who follow minority religious faiths. This outcome would also further imperil all left, liberal and democratic dissenting voices, in civil society, in the media, in universities, and in letters and the arts.

A second scenario, anticipated by a much smaller number of political commentators, is of reduced support for the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), its tally falling short of the half-way mark. In such a situation, they anticipate the possibility that many regional parties could be persuaded to support an NDA government only if it is led by a less belligerent leader than Mr. Modi, possibly Nitin Gadkari or Rajnath Singh. Many are relieved by the possibility of such an outcome: anyone other than Mr. Modi would be welcome, they reason. But it would be a dangerous mistake to believe that such a choice would pull India out of the dark abyss into which it has slipped. Even with a more acceptable face, as with Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the RSS would use political power to further penetrate all institutions, and enfeeble what survives of secular practice.

The least expected scenario, of the victory of the United Progressive Alliance or a federal front of regional parties, cannot be ruled out yet. After all, the BJP has lost no exit polls since 2004, but it lost many elections. However, even with such an outcome, the crusade against secular democracy waged with such vigour by the RSS will not be won. The appetite and moral courage to fight majoritarian politics head-on stands perilously weakened among Opposition political parties. Whatever the final outcome, this fight to salvage, defend and fortify secularism will have to be fought by the Indian people. India is today a wasteland of compassion. It will take generations to clean out the toxins of hate from Indian society. It is a battle that must be waged with courage, with perseverance and with love. History in the end is on our side.

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Opinion

The politician and the machine

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By  SY Quraishi

The general elections 2019 is moving towards closure, with six out of seven phases already over. All eyes are now on the counting.

It is not surprising that the issue of counting of Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trails (VVPATs) has become hot once again.

 

The decision to introduce VVPATs as a measure to make electronic voting machines (EVMs) transparent was taken in 2010 when a meeting of all political parties arrived at a consensus that this was the ultimate answer.

Finding the suggestion reasonable, the Election Commission (EC) immediately accepted it and asked the two EVM manufacturers, BEL and ECIL, to design the VVPAT machines. An independent committee of experts consisting of five professors from different IITs was tasked to oversee the design and the manufacturing process.

A series of trials were held, followed by a full-day election simulation in July 2011 in five climatically diverse cities– namely Cherrapunji, Delhi, Jaisalmer, Leh, and Thiruvananthapuram.

Since many bugs were noticed, the trial was repeated after addressing them in July 2012 at exactly the same places. Only after making sure that they were technologically sound and climatically dependable, were the VVPATs initially deployed in 20,000 polling booths successfully. Subsequently, all constituencies were equipped with VVPATs.

In 2013, the Supreme Court also lauded the EC’s decision to use VVPATs and directed the government to release adequate funds for their procurement for the 2019 elections. The machines that kept coming in were randomly deployed. From 2017 onwards, all state elections have been conducted with EVMs attached with VVPATs.

What was the counting procedure? Slips generated by one VVPAT in each assembly constituency were counted. Of the 1,500 machines counted so far, according to the EC, not a single mismatch was found.

In various elections, however, many VVPAT machines malfunctioned. The chief election commissioner (CEC) righty clarified that malfunctioning is different from rigging.

During the by-elections in Bihar and UP, and the Karnataka assembly elections last year, VVPAT glitches resulted in machine replacement rates of 4 to 20 per cent.

These were largely due to issues in the print unit, which is sensitive to weather. With hardware changes introduced in the machines, the glitches came down to 2 per cent for the Chhattisgarh Assembly elections.

While the debate is going on, I had offered an out-of-the-box solution: Let the top two runners up in every constituency choose any two VVPATs to be counted. As they have the highest stake in the results, they will choose the ones they are most suspicious about.

This is analogous to the Decision Review System in the game of cricket, in which two referrals are allowed for each team. Ever since its introduction, violent disputes about the controversial decisions taken by the umpire have all but disappeared.

This would do away with a large random sample being demanded at present, as only four machines will have to be counted per constituency. In case any mismatch is detected, all machines in the constituency must be counted.

In March, as many as 21 opposition parties moved the Supreme Court demanding that 50 per cent of the total slips be tallied. The SC asked the Commission to increase the sample size of the tally from one booth per assembly constituency to five assembly segments of each Lok Sabha constituency “for better voter confidence and credibility of electoral process”.

The court said that the move will ensure the “greatest degree of accuracy and satisfaction” in the electoral process.

On April 24, the same 21 parties approached the SC again with a review petition, citing concerns related to the first two phases of polling and the “unreliability” of the EVMs.

On May 7, it was turned down with the court saying that “we are not inclined to modify our order”.

I wonder how these parties expected the apex to review its decision, which was taken after great deliberation, when no new facts had emerged justifying the return to the court.

Surprisingly, the issue which should have been discussed and debated is still unattended: What happens if the VVPAT count doesn’t match the EVM count? Even one mismatch is enough to create doubts about the other machines as well.

The current provision is that if there is a mismatch, the VVPAT will prevail. This is fine if the mismatch corresponds to the figures of the mock poll, which have not been deleted.

In all other mismatch cases, perhaps all machines in the constituency should then be counted. The apex court has called for “better voter confidence and credibility of the electoral process.”

If it takes time, so be it. After all, that was the purpose behind the introduction of VVPATs. This can be tried out on a pilot basis. There may not be many such cases, if at all, as evident from the experience of 1,500 machines, which didn’t throw up any mismatches, but public confidence will be ensured.

The Commission may convene an all-party meeting, yet again, as concerns are serious and the stakes extremely high. My experience in dealing with political parties is that with open-minded dialogue, consensus does emerge. Clarity of procedures is required before the counting day approaches. Time is running out.

(Writer is former chief election commissioner of India and the author of An Undocumented Wonder- the Making of the Great Indian Election.)

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Opinion

Main Hoon Na!

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By  Chitra Padmanabhan

Clacking away at the computer keyboard, I heard a tapping sound on the window. It was good old Birdie looking as if she was bursting to tell me something. “I have flown all the way from the abode of Shiva in the Himalayas,” she said, “to tell you about the drama that unfolded there yesterday.”

Curbing my curiosity – it was a long way off from the Garhwal Himalayas to Delhi – I placed a bowl of water and a plate of millets before her. Atithi devo bhava (the visitor is like god), after all.

 

After a few minutes during which she gave the refreshments her undivided attention, Birdie began chirping: “A few nights ago there was frenetic activity in the forest. It was not the harbinger of an earthquake to come, just the anticipation of an exciting event to liven things up. News had filtered in that there was going to be a full-fledged film shooting around the temple of Shiva. None other than the great actor of Bharatvarsha was scheduled to come and deliver the performance of a lifetime.”

“So, what happened?” I asked breathlessly.

Birdie warbled: “It was fascinating. Total pro that he is, actor saheb kept experimenting with different face angles to see which one the camera liked the most. People call Aamir Khan a method actor, but yeh to uska bhi baap nikla (he was miles ahead of Aamir). It was not just face angles that he focused on; he went down to the last detail, such as what should be the exact set of his shoulders as he walked towards the shrine. In fact, he told the unit to do some seriously complex calculations to arrive at the exact angle.”

But why, I wanted to know.

In an awed tone Birdie recited word for word what actor saheb said: “I should be seen to be somewhat humble as I approach the god but not so humble as to appear like the indistinguishable mass of pleading supplicants. I am the best, after all, and I have my image to consider. I need to look like a realised soul who has been on a spiritual journey for decades to be the saintly actor that I am, capable of making the masses and classes forget their troubles with just a sideway glance.”

According to what Birdie told me, the entire unit, from the director to the humble gofer, speechlessly nodded. They had been witness to his temper – he had entered his vanity van for a makeover and had come out holding the make-up artiste by the scruff of his neck, saying, “Do I pay you to show the shadows under my eyes?” On top of that it seems he had given explicit instructions that he should be shown as taller than the mountains in every frame.

I was impatient to know about the scene that the actor was going to shoot but I bided my time as Birdie nibbled on some biscuit crumbs.

Fortified, she continued: “Do you remember the film Main Hoon Na in which Shah Rukh Khan starts hearing violins every time his eyes alight on Sushmita Sen? Well, they were preparing for a similar scene here. The actor was wearing the ochre/saffron costume of an ascetic for the shot. The director went through the details with his team one last time: ‘As saheb starts walking towards the shrine, the entire area will come alive with a song sung to the lord, Rang de tu mohe gerua (drench me in ochre/saffron), the colour symbolising asceticism and devotion of the highest kind.’” Apparently, the actor told the unit to do what it had to do to ensure that his head and the shikhar of the temple were at the same level.

There was a long pause, as if Birdie was playing the scene in her mind, and not liking it too much. I, on the other hand, was agog to know more.

Finally Birdie spoke in a small voice: There was a terrible mix-up and the wrong song was played. It was not the sonorous ‘Rang de tu mohe gerua’ that reverberated through the Himalayas but the following lines:

Raja ho ya rank

Yahan to sab hain chowkidar

Kuch to aa kar chale gaye

Kuch jaane ko tayyar

Khabardar, Khabardar!

(King or pauper,

Everyone’s just a caretaker in this world, keeping time

Some have come and gone

And some are on the verge of going

Be mindful!)

As the philosophical song played in those pristine environs, all hell broke loose. The spiritual expression that the actor had mustered with great effort came apart at the seams. In its place emerged the ugly face of hubris that he, a king among men, should be told, albeit mistakenly, that his reign was coming to an end. The line between the actor and the role had completely blurred. Maybe his reaction had something to do with the fact that there were new actors on the block.

Meanwhile the unit members took shelter behind any rock they could find and waited for saheb to cool down. After making doubly sure that they had the right soundtrack the director prepared to shoot the scene again. This time it was indeed the mellifluous Rang de tu mohe gerua that brought the place alive.

I asked Birdie about the expression on the actor’s face.

She was thoughtful: “People say a good actor is aware of the camera but knows that it is his conviction about the role and his craft that sees him through. He is oblivious of the camera at that time. That day I realised that the camera is ruthless; it is quick to smoke out any false note.”

I broke the flow of her reverie: “Are you saying the great actor lacked the skill?”

Birdie hummed and hawed: “Listen, I don’t want this story coming back to bite me. Let me just say that for all his ‘I am the lion of the jungle’ demeanour, actor saheb was so conscious of who he was and of the camera that he ended up playing an actor trying to be humble in the most arrogant manner. Moreover, the state-of-the-art cameras are so cruel that let alone trace the slightest ripple of tension in the muscles, they can even capture the anxiety flowing in the actor’s blood.

I asked: “Is that what the camera showed that day?”

Birdie nodded: “The camera showed an actor so loath to free himself of his grandiose image, so stressed out at the thought that he would be judged by the audience that he lost his nerve. So he abandoned the fiction genre and decided to shoot a documentary. He had the camera follow him, the great actor, or abhineta, on a personal journey the likes of which were undertaken by the ancient rishis of Bharatvarsha. “

I consoled Birdie, saying that there would be other film shootings, other actors.

She said: “All that is fine, but it seemed to me that the ‘documentary’ made by actor saheb was far more fictitious than any fiction film could have been. Give me Shah Rukh Khan any day!”

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