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Surviving Delhi during Partition

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By Javid Ali Khan

It had never entered my father’s mind that he would have to ‘flee’ India like a criminal. He wanted to go and settle in Pakistan, but in an organised manner, after having made appropriate living and other arrangements there, funded by the sale of his lands and urban property in India – an estate worth over 11 crores (Rs. 110 million) at that time. But no one had foreseen the calamitous effects of the Partition and the psychopathic hysterical bloodbaths that would follow it.

The convoy consisted of our two cars and two truckloads of villagers from Abba’s lands, who were camping in our extensive lawns for protection, all armed with lathis (bamboo poles). In the first car were Abba and his ‘shikari’: an ex-Army servant, a crack shot with shotgun/rifle who used to organise shoots & hunting expeditions (tiger, leopard, bear, crocodile) for him. The shikari was in the front seat with a rifle and two more servants with shotguns behind. That car had a Congress flag in front and Abba had donned a Nehru cap in case we were intercepted. There was only one untoward incident on the journey. A man lying on the road, pretending to be a corpse in a vain attempt to stop the speeding convoy so that his comrades hiding in the bushes on either side could attack and loot the cars, got up and ran for his life when the shikari pointed his gun at him and took aim, announcing he was about to shoot. The convoy speeded past and we reached Delhi early in the morning, driving to my maternal uncle Ibrahim Jan’s house on 15 Mahadeo Road in New Delhi. My mamujan (uncle) was a Government servant who had been kept back to wind up affairs before leaving for Pakistan. Mahadeo Road was a Government Officer’s colony so we were in relative (pun intended) safety. The two truckloads of villagers who had fled with us encamped on the lawns of the house. Over the next few days while the elders discussed what to do next, circumstances again decided for us.

 

My uncle’s boss sent him a message enquiring what in blazes he was up to, with a hundred “armed” men in his house. He was putting the whole colony in danger because the radical Hindu/Sikh mobs had taken note of this and were planning an attack. The villagers (“armed men”) were at once ordered to vacate the lawns immediately and go to the Indian Government-run refugee camp at the Red Fort. But only a few days after their departure, one morning while we had just sat down to breakfast, a panicky and panting Phool Mohammed (a teenaged servant, an orphan adopted by my mother, and so ‘Phulloo Bhai’ to us children) rushed in, announcing that while he was shopping he saw Sikh mobs heading towards our house.

My older cousins went for their guns, bravely announcing they would die fighting. Abba handed my mother a pistol, saying that if we are overrun, she should shoot us, the children, first – and then herself. But once the panic subsided, better sense prevailed. Once more we were all bundled into cars with the items of most value and the firearms and forming a convoy, we took the opposite direction to where Phulloo Bhai had seen the Sikh mobs coming and taking back-roads, we got out of there fast. Abba decided to take us all to his friend, Nawab Sir Mohammed Yamin Khan’s house. He was one of the nawabs from Meerut, knighted by the British. A very senior and prominent Muslim Leaguer, he had been a member of the defunct Legislative Assembly and close associate of Mr. Jinnah and uncle Liaquat, This was now the 16th of September, so uncle Liaquat was, of course, in Karachi, tackling the much more monumental problems of running the newly created country.

Yamin Khan told us he was vacating his house also, as it was vulnerable. He had already sent his younger brother Yasin Khan and both their families to his friend Abbasi sahib’s haveli. And Abbasi sahib was also a prominent – and rich – Muslim Leaguer. He had a large haveli-type mansion in old Delhi, with two storeys, high stone walls and terraces running round the upper storeys as well as the roof. It resembled a fortress. He and his grown up sons, all shikaris (hunters), were very well armed. He had given refuge so far to about 50 people, mostly from the elite circles. When we reached there with more firearms, the fortress effect was complete. The young men, including my maternal cousins, used to take turns patrolling the terraces with guns on shoulders in a show of strength and to deter any thoughts of attack from the Hindu neighbours.

The next move for our family was again to be decided, not by us, but by lady luck and circumstances. (Most of the account at this house which is to follow was related to me by one of these maternal cousins, Munir Jan, my father’s favourite, his riding and hunting companion and protege and who in later years was to become my role model and mentor.)

As our bad luck would have it, right in front of Abbasi sahib’s haveli at the corner of the road was the office of a radical Hindu organisation (I think Munir bhai said it was the Mahasabha or perhaps Raj Sangh). They complained to the authorities that the Muslims had made a fortress in front of their office and that they not only felt humiliated, as it was a deliberate show of strength, but also threatened. They put pressure on the police and other authorities to vacate this place, failing which they would have to take steps themselves. So some Government and police officials came and tried to convince Abba and Abbasi sahib to move elsewhere. They were told bluntly that there was no safe place in Delhi and here they felt safe and could hold off attacks.

“But until when?” they were asked.

Abba and other elders were of the opinion that this madness would run itself out and people would start to tire of the killing and looting and sanity – and normality would return. They also emphasised that it was the Indian Government’s duty to restore peace and order quickly and return things to normal. After some more visits by Government and police officials, the impasse remained and the situation was turning serious and explosive.

Reports of this stand-off reached Nehru’s ears/desk, especially as the “ring leader” seemed to be Liaquat Ali Khan’s younger brother – my father.

Nehru was naturally alarmed at this and sent a message that he would like to come to tea and discuss our situation. So he came to tea. My cousin, Munir Jan (who was privy to these discussions hiding behind a curtain) told me many years later that the discussions did not go well, as Nehru was blamed for not doing enough to stop the rioting and slaughter. He did not lose his cool and pleaded with Abba to vacate and told all the others that the situation could turn very nasty. He frankly expressed his helplessness and that of the police in controlling the “insane” and hysterical bloodthirsty mobs. To cut it short, a compromise was reached. Nehru told Abba that uncle Liaquat had donated his house, Gul-e-Rana to the Pakistan Government and it was to be its embassy. But just then, it had been turned into a refugee camp. It was chaotic, with no one to administer it.

And so Nehru requested Abba to go there with his family and take over Gul e Rana and run the camp. But Abba was adamant that he would not save his own life and leave the rest of the people there to their fate. So it was decided that Amma and family would go to Gul e Rana and she would take over its running and administration. Abba would remain behind until all the people taking refuge in the haveli had been moved in instalments to safety.


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Opinion

Easter Sunday Massacre in Sri Lanka

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By Lukman Harees

What happened in Sri Lanka on this black Easter Sunday, in a series of well-orchestrated and coordinated terror attacks on churches and other locations, is an unforgivable and brutal tragedy of catastrophic proportions. A deadly wave of suicide bombings ripped through many churches and few leading hotels in the capital Colombo, as well as in many other parts of the country, making, an otherwise serene, ‘Easter Sunday’ the darkest day in recent history. At least 290 people were reported killed, with 500 injured in this dastardly terror attack. The spate of senseless killings and terror attacks on innocent civilians, on a day when Christians were engaged in reflection and prayer, deserves severe condemnation by people of all faiths, which brought back ugly memories of the bloody chapter of an inhumane war which engulfed Sri Lanka for over three decades in its recent history. It is the height of depravity to target worshippers on their holiest days, proving that terrorists have no race or religion, and that perpetrators of these terror attacks speak for no one but themselves.

The Easter Sunday massacre was certainly a shocking tragedy. Sri Lanka appears to be heading towards another chapter of terror and violence after a period of relative peace and calmness since the end of a bloody war in 2009. However, what causes much concern and fear is that the potency of terror lies not in the act but in the aftermath. The act is death and destruction, horrendous in itself. The response is what gives it political traction. All that the terrorists want is the oxygen of publicity and for the nation to go berserk, declare emergencies, tear up freedoms, and organise attacks on the people at the grass-root levels who have nothing to do with the massacre, thus, creating mayhem in the already wounded nation by the scars of war. By capitulating to these desires, the country would vastly increase the power of terror – and the likelihood of imitation.

 

The government has imposed a state of emergency and a curfew to maintain law and order, as well as to prevent communal tensions, as there are fears that the Easter Sunday bombings could spark fresh sectarian violence. The state of emergency will grant police and the military extensive powers to detain and interrogate without court orders and was in force at various times during the civil war that raged from 1983 to 2009. As well as this, there are bans placed upon social media to prevent any dissemination of conspiracy theories and misinformation. Still, the government and intelligence services are being blamed for ignoring many prior warnings regarding preparations for an operation of this magnitude. One of the local militant groups immediately accused of orchestrating the massacre was National ThowheedJama’ath (NTJ), which was reportedly warned of by local Muslims, according to a top Sri Lankan police officer.

However, the more worrying aspect is rather the very nature, patterns, timing, planning, and execution of these despicable attacks. They clearly show tell-tale signs of a greater machination at work beyond mere cat’s paw involvement, aimed at creating further mayhem and disharmony among people who are recovering from the wounds of war and post-war communal violence. There are many factors which cause concern: the fact that many churches and members of one religious group were targeted; the manner in which the attacks had been orchestrated simultaneously across Sri Lanka (the level of ‘sophistication’ of which was not seen even in the days of the ruthless Tamil Tigers); and the targeting of leading tourist hotels in the capital. They bear the hallmarks of expertise and professionalism, perhaps with international affiliations and a vested political and economic agenda, rather than the work of ordinary lone wolves, psychopaths, or a small hate group; which raises much suspicion about the possibilities of many ‘outside’ interests.

‘Terrorism’ is far from a new phenomenon – neither in Sri Lanka nor elsewhere in the world. ‘Terrorism’ is nothing but the random murder of defenceless non-combatants, with the intent of instilling fear of mortal danger amidst a civilian population as a strategy designed to advance political ends. A philosopher Ted Honderich, in his controversial book ‘After the Terror’, says, “their (victims) deaths were not the first intention of their killers, but necessary in the carrying out of another intention, a justified one. Their very first intention may indeed be, achieving their political ends.” Thus, there is no doubt that terrorism, as Honderich suggests, is a subset of politically motivated violence that falls short of conventional war, and is both internationally illegal and, to say the least, morally questionable. It is, therefore, not possible to discount the possibility of political scheming too in carrying out this despicable Easter Sunday massacre, in order to gain narrow political ends and stay in power, especially when talks of another round of elections are in the air.

In the backdrop of these untoward developments, Muslims of Sri Lanka, who have also been regular victims of terror in the post-war period, are now in a renewed state of fear and insecurity. With media sensationalism playing both locally and globally—borrowing ideas from a powerful Islamophobia industry—the emerging situation shows signs of a social volcano waiting to erupt. It is too early to find out the intricate details of what led to this shameful chapter in the history of this Island, the Pearl of the Indian Ocean. However, in this confusing scenario, the peaceful mainstream Muslims now wake up to the reality that it is imperative, even belatedly, that they stand up to and confront the evil of a small fringe group amongst them. For the moment, both Muslims in Sri Lanka, as well as Muslim diaspora groups worldwide, are expressing their solidarity and offering support with their grieving Christian neighbours and other victims of this tragedy. This is undoubtedly the most challenging chapter in Sri Lanka’s recent history, and there is now an increase of public activism Sri Lanka, which asks the country’s political and religious leaders to follow the example of New Zealand Prime Minster Arden, whose calmness, compassion, and tough leadership style were praised by observers in the wake of the worst mass killing in her country’s modern history.Something must also be said about the stark contrast between the global reaction to the destruction of symbols of European Christianity in the form of the Notre Dame fire and the destruction of non-European dark-skinned Christian bodies and lives. Let this be food for thought.

Sri Lanka will have to figure out how to move forward so that events like this one do not recur. Things like ‘terrorism’ are complex issues of our time, and as other countries around the world have seen, they lack clear solutions: gun bans do not end violence; cracking down on social media does little to deter racism or hatred, and stigmatisation and demonising communities do not work. On the contrary, it is a concerted plan of action and public activism, across racial or religious divides that is needed. They will do the right things: avoid emotional outbursts, ensure people are alert to the evil elements amongst them, expose this evil, and forge unity among people to confront it, all whilst ensuring common values of humanity are protected at all costs. For the mainstream Muslims of Sri Lanka showing solidarity and resoluteness in healing the scars of the wounded nation, the foremost challenge is to project the real message of Islam in the public domain, confronting false propaganda media narratives from the clutches of radical and ‘extremist’ elements. As MuizBukhary, a well-known Sri Lankan scholar, says: “we need to work hard to put things right”.

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Opinion

Faith and Enlightenment Should Go Hand In Hand

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By Zafar Aziz Chaudhry

In the early part of this month, during my sojourn to the Holy Land, the question which perplexed me most was whether there was a real connection between enlightenment and faith, and whether in their genesis these two are all-embracing or mutually exclusive. My deep reflections on various texts of the Holy Quran, and some references gathered from history did reaffirm my belief that they are mutually inclusive and do not conflict with each other. In fact for the future survival of Muslim nations with grace and dignity in competition with the rest of the world, it should be clearly understood that there is no schism between these two concepts. Rather an enlightened world-view is likely to rub off the accumulated centuries-old rust on the other-wise pristine fabric of Islam.

The European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasized reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent figures included Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith. It was a revolt against Man’s self-imposed tendency not to use his own understanding and only to follow tradition. It stressed reason, logic, criticism, and freedom of thought over dogma, blind faith, and superstition. In a broader sense, Enlightenment applied scientific reasoning to politics, science, and religion. Its followers were typically humanists who supported equality and human dignity, and it is wrong to suppose that enlightenment is in any manner opposed to religion. On the other hand, it acts as a bulwark against superstition, intolerance, and bigotry which have brought bad name to religions.

 

Despite their different approaches, science and religion are also complementary. It is said that science can help you diagnose and treat your cancer, but it cannot touch the despair and dismay and terror you feel when you get the diagnosis, nor can it help you to die well. For that people turn to religion, which answers the deeper questions of our human predicament.

The survival of religion in the 21st century, according to Karen Armstrong, largely depends on its capacity to create compassion for the fellow human beings which is the ultimate object of religion.

But unfortunately religion is mostly misunderstood in our time due to our inability to take historical perspective of the social, cultural, intellectual, and emotional settings that shaped people’s lives and actions in the past. Such an understanding which is often termed as “historical empathy” helps us to understand the vast differences between us in the present and those in the past. Compassion also teaches us to transcend our limited world-view and place ourselves in the cultural and social environments of the past.

The Holy Prophet by his conduct and precepts has been admittedly one of the greatest and most influential personages in history and we Muslims believe that the Holy Quran, his revealed message to humanity, is a marvel of wisdom for the mankind. But the fate of Muslims everywhere is most pathetic, the responsibility for which can be traced in Islamic history.

The first shock after the death of the Holy Prophet on the question of his succession resulted in the tragic split between the Sunnies and Shias which also in due course divided the Islamic countries into two blocks.. The next significant setback which reversed the Islamic clock occurred during the Abbasid period when philosophers like al-Ghazali (1058-1111 AD) fiercely opposed the Mu’tazilites practice of subjecting Islamic theology to rationalism which led the Abbasids to ban the Mu’tazilites. Islam’s vitality and appeal was gravely affected by the resurgence of literalist interpretations of Sharia (that treats man-made laws as divine) and the worsening of sectarian cleavages within Islam which has set in motion a perpetual cycle of violence that directly endangers the lives of ordinary Muslims everywhere.

Within a century of Holy Prophet’s death his followers had built an empire that stretched from Spanish Europe to Central Asia. The Rashidin caliphate can be credited for military expansion, but It was not until the Umayyad Dynasty-from 661 to 750-that Islamic and Arabic culture began to truly spread. The Abbasid Dynasty-from 750 to 1258-intensified and solidified these cultural changes.

The Golden period of knowledge in Islam began during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) when he invited scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds and mandated them to gather and translate all of the world’s classical knowledge into the Arabic language. This resulted into an astonishing growth of philosophers and scientists such as IbneRushd (translated Aristotle, and wrote books on Islamic jurisprudence) Al-Kindi (discovered rules of astronomy and optics) Khwarizmi (Father of Algebra and mathematics) IbneSina (Father of Medicine, astronomy and Logic) who ushered in a golden era of knowledge.

Ironically the dark age of Europe coincided with golden age of Islam. But it was the most tragic turn in the history of Islam that the fruits of hard labours of these philosophers and scientists could not reach the Islamic society because of the opposition to rational thought by the jurists and clergymen of the day and lack of wisdom and vision of their rulers who opposed a rational underpinning of Islam – analogous to St. Thomas Aquinas who lent rationality to Christianity in the Middle Ages. The theologians like Al-Ghazali and IbneTaimiyya refused to accept scientific change and discoveries and forced the Khalifa to ban Mu’tazilites who were advocates of rational thought. It was contrary to the teachings of the Quran and precepts of the Holy Prophet who had made no such restrictions on the acquisition of knowledge. According to the saying of the Prophet, Muslims were to seek knowledge even if they had to go to China.

The Islamic state also failed to patronize these polymaths by refusing them enough funds for their research etc under fear of reaction from the reactionary forces. But most importantly, contrary to the injunctions of the Holy Quran, the local jurists divided the concept of knowledge into two broad and disjunctive categories as “Ilm Ad-Din” (= religious knowledge) and “Ilm Ad-Dunya” (= worldly knowledge). Neither in the Quran nor in the authentic books of Hadith was there any such division allowed in the acquisition of knowledge. Islamic sources declare knowledge as an indivisible whole.

The Golden period of spread of knowledge ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 AD.

Even during the Ottoman Empire, nothing was done for promotion and development of science and technology, perhaps because the Emperors thought that it would be a threat to the opulence of the monarchs. On the other hand, a blunder was done through a wretched Fatwa, which banned the printing press in the Empire which remained in force for over 200 years. This left Islamic world in the dark when West sailed away with renaissance and enlightenment.

Thus there are enough grounds to believe that for the survival of Islamic civilization, faith and enlightenment should go hand in hand.

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Opinion

Losing Hope in God’s Mercy

The Kashmir Monitor

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By Ejaz Naqvi

Ever since I was a child, I used to hear the sermons trying to instill the ‘fear of God’ in me, whereby the Imams will warn us to be straight or else! Decades later, as I started to study the Qur’an myself, the kind and forgiving nature of God became so apparent making me wonder why the focus of the clerics was so much on the wrath of God.

I would hear multiple times ‘the correct way’ to greet, the correct way to bathe, the correct way to step into the bathroom, the correct way to enter the mosque, the correct way to offer Salat and fast and so on. If I didn’t, I was risking having all my good deeds deleted. If I erred a little, I would face the anger of God. The “right path” was so narrow that it would be impossible not to stumble and fall out of the mercy of God.

 

It is true that the Qur’an is full of warnings for the wrongdoers. But it is also full of the good news. In fact the prophets, including Prophet Muhammad, are often referred to as Basheer (bearer of good news) and Nazeer (the warners). For some reason, the clerics got stuck mostly on the Nazeer part.

Growing up, I thought I would never ever be able to make it and be on the good side of the Lord. No matter how hard I worked, if I stumbled a little, all my good deeds would be washed away. It was as if God had his finger on the ‘delete’ button and ever so ready to use it. The truth is that He does have his finger on the ‘delete button’, but it is our sins and wrong actions that He is so willing to delete!

To be perfectly honest, I still don’t know if ‘I made it’. Only God knows that. Only God is the Judge.

However, I am actually much more hopeful of God’s mercy. I realize the most commonly repeated attributes of God in the Qur’an are Rehmaan (the Most Gracious) and Raheem (the Most Merciful).

And in terms of God deleting the good deeds, the fact is that the Qur’an is full of passages on God’s Mercy and His Forgiveness. This verse says it all.

Say: “O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 39:53

We tend to forget that in Islam, one of the biggest sins is to lose hope in God’s mercy! The exegetist differs in their opinion if this verse was revealed in reference to a particular group of Muslims or a larger group or the entire humanity. Many do believe it is addressed to all ‘servants’ and all humans are considered His servants.

And whoever does evil or acts unjustly to his soul, then ask forgiveness of Allah, he shall find Allah Forgiving, Merciful. 4:110

There are other passages that clearly state that everyone will be rewarded for even an atom’s worth of good deed.

‘Acting unjustly to his own soul’ or ‘transgressed against their souls’ refers to the fact that if we do wrong, we only hurt ourselves.

One way I look at the Qur’an is that it gives us plenty of information and education on the consequences of breaking the law, as well as obeying the law.

I realize the Day of Judgment is also called the Day of Reckoning (Yaum e Hissab), so I am accountable for my actions (and inactions). It is also very true that the Qur’an’s description of the punishment for the wrongdoers and deniers of God’s signs is rather graphic but its description of the reward and mercy for those who believe AND do good work is also repetitive and I would argue more prevalent. The Qur’an acknowledges that humans are not angels and that we are prone to sin, and therefore calls for us to repent and ask for forgiveness. The greatest sin in Islam is considered to be associating partners with God. That sin cannot be forgiven, except when one repents.

Surely God does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases; and whoever associates anything with God, he devises indeed a great sin. 4:48

Many of the ’99 Names of God’ refer to His forgiveness.

Al-Wadud: The Loving One
Al-Ghaffar: The Forgiving
Al-Ghafur: The Forgiver and the Hider of Faults
Al-Afu: The Forgiver- this refers to forgiving as in ‘rubbing off’ or in deletion of sins as if they never occurred!

Al-Rau’f: The Clement (Lenient)/Kind

Like the Qur’an, the Old Testament is also sometimes viewed as a bearer of a wrathful God, ready to set everything ablaze. But it too makes many references to God’s forgiveness and mercy.

Then the Lord passed by in front of him and proclaimed, “The Lord, the Lord God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in loving kindness and truth; who keeps loving kindness for thousands, who forgives iniquity, transgression and sin; yet He will by no means leave the guilty unpunished, visiting the iniquity of fathers on the children and on the grandchildren to the third and fourth generations.” Exodus 34:6-7

Similarly the Gospels make references to forgiveness on numerous occasions- even more so then the Old Testament. Salvation and forgiveness are integral part of Christianity. The Gospels add another element- to forgive each other so God can forgive us- something that is part of the revered ‘Lord’s prayer’ as taught in Matthew 6:9-13 and Luke 11:2-4

….and forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who sin against us. Luke 11:4 and Matthew 6:12

Of course I don’t want to ‘take advantage’ of Lord’s forgiveness and continue to wrong myself. But I do realize we are all humans and that I will err. When I do, I will never lose hope in his immense mercy and His forgiveness. That’s the biggest hope out there no matter what they say!

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