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‘Stunk in my nostrils’.

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By Hindol Sengupta

Gandhi and Nehru both advised Bose not to contest again [for Congress presidentship in 1939]. Patel and Gandhi tried hard to convince [AbulKalam] Azad to take on the role but he refused. Gandhi then proposed the name of a relatively minor Congress leader, PattabhiSitaramayya, and top leaders of the Congress Working Committee, including Patel and Prasad, supported Sitaramayya. If only Patel had contested with Gandhi’s blessings, there was a fair chance that Bose would have withdrawn but now he faced a man who was no match for him, but one who had Gandhi’s blessings and the support of the top Congress leaders. By choosing to contest, Bose was also shattering recent Congress protocol of having presidents elected unopposed to show unanimous choice and avoid intra-party disputes, at least overtly, on presidentship. He wrote to the Congress leader:
“If the Right-wing really want national unity and solidarity, they would be well advised to accept a Leftist as president. They have created considerable misapprehension by their insistence on a Rightist candidate at any cost and by the unseemly manner with which they have set up such a candidate who was retiring and who had been surprised that this name had been suggested for presidentship.”
Countered the Sardar: “For me, as for those with whom I have been able to discuss the question, the matter is not one of persons and principles, nor of Leftists and Rightists. The sole consideration is what is in the best interest of the country.”
Netaji’s charisma was enough to beat the charmless Sitaramayya. Congress delegates spurned Gandhi and Patel’s appeals and voted for Bose. The Bengali leader won the second time by 205 votes.
Gandhi had been defeated, as had the all-powerful party boss Patel. Gandhi, of course, would not take his defeat lying down, and he did the only thing that could have turned the tide against Bose. He made the defeat about him, and not about Sitaramayya. “The defeat is more mine than his,” Gandhi declared in a letter, and left it to Bose to “choose a homogenous cabinet and enforce his programme without let or hindrance…after all SubhasBabu is not an enemy of his country.”
The subtext was immediately clear. It was a threat. Gandhi was telling the Congress to choose again – this time between him and Bose. By telling them that Bose was not the enemy of the country, Gandhi was ascertaining that the Congress leaders understood that Bose was an enemy, but of the Congress as envisaged by Gandhi.
Even though the party had ignored Gandhi’s advice, the Congress was not ready to break away from Gandhi. And any middle ground between Gandhi–Patel and Bose had long since disappeared. The young Bengali leader was too aggressive – in fact, too reflective of the mood of the country.
At the Tripuri session of the Congress, where Bose’s older brother Sarat represented him because Netaji was ill, a majority of the Congress Working Committee resigned.
GovindBallabh Pant proposed a new resolution demanding a different Working Committee that was approved and guided by Mahatma Gandhi. “The die was cast. All the subsequent attempts made at compromise were a cry in the wilderness.”
To weaken Bose’s position, Gandhi even issued a public statement advocating “unconditional cooperation with Britain in the prosecution of the war”. Bose, as president, demanded a mass civil disobedience, instead, against the British Raj.
After Tripuri, a furious Sarat Bose wrote to Gandhi:
“What I saw and heard at Tripuri during the seven days I was there, was an eye opener to me. The exhibition of truth and non-violence that I saw in persons whom the public look upon as your disciples [targeting Nehru, Patel, Azad and company] and representatives has to use your own words, ‘stunk in my nostrils’. The election of Subhas was not a defeat for yourself, but of the high command of which Sardar Patel is the shining light.”
Sarat Bose uses the harshest words for Subhas’ opponents in this and the choicest abuses are directed towards Patel.
‘The propaganda that was carried on by them against the Rashtrapati [president, i.e. Subhas] and those who happen to share his political views was thoroughly mean, malicious and indicative and utterly devoid of even the semblance of truth and non-violence.’
Sarat Bose accused Gandhi’s closest acolytes of having shown none of the Gandhian sense of fairness.
At Tripuri, those who swear by you in public offered nothing but obstruction and for gaining their end, took the fullest and meanest advantage of Subhas’s illness. Some ex members of the Working Committee went to the length of carrying on an insidious and incessant propaganda that the Rashtrapati’s illness was a ‘fake’, and was only a political illness.
An anguished Patel responded:
“It pains me to find that he could use such language and attribute such personal motive and charges against his colleagues with whom he happened to differ in politics and thereby bring down the entire Congress politics to the lowest possible level where difference of principles or policy have no place whatever. It would be easy to answer the letter in the same strain but it would be of no advantage to anybody to imitate the tone and temper of the letter which is evidently written more in anger than in reason. After all what answer one can give to such a passionate and abusive denunciation?”
In the end, it became impossible for Bose to lead a Congress that was full of leaders who were determined to frustrate his programme. No matter how much support he could garner from ordinary, especially younger, followers and members of the party, the machinery of the Congress was against him. Even though he had won the election fair and square, he could not find a path of compromise with Gandhi. Bose resigned.

 

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Opinion

Quranic Meaning of Patience (Sabr)

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By Mansoor Alam

The Qur’an says to believers: ((2:3 – They believe in the unseen. This belief in the unseen is for every effort.
Obviously, the result of any effort does not appear right away. It takes time. One has to toil and struggle persistently. The result does appear – but only after some time. The people who have faith in the efficacy of this law – Allah’s Law of Requital – continue to work hard and continue to believe that the results will appear in due course. They do not get tired. They neither get frustrated nor get disappointed nor resign in the middle of their effort. This is what the Qur’an has called (Sabr) or patienc (103:3 – those who attain to faith, and do good works, and enjoin upon one another the keeping to truth, and enjoin upon one another patience in adversity.
The Quranicpatience (Sabr) does not mean that when nothing works; when frustration sets in; when people get disappointed; and when they think that nothing is happening then they are told: So, dear brothers and sisters! Do Sabr. What can be done?! Whatever was written in the kismet will happen anyway! Nothing can be done now!! This is not the right meaning of (Sabr).
But in the Qur’an patience (Sabr) is something what a farmer goes through day in and day out for months at a time with perseverance and steadfastness. This whole process is what is defined as (Sabr) according to the Qur’an and the one who perseveres through this process is called (Saabir). Qur’an said that this faith in the unseen – (Bil-Ghaib) requires ??? (Sabr); that believers must have full faith and conviction in this whole process of (Sabr). When the Qur’an says: ??(6:21But verily the wrong-doers never shall prosper [Yusuf Ali]. This means oppressors and tyrants won’t flourish; that they will eventually fail. This is the Law of Requital that the Qur’an proclaims. And this law is unchangeable (6:34). Tyrants and oppressors must remember that this law is bound to produce its consequence, no matter what. But how it will happen? It will happen according to this Qur’anic law of requital that what you sow is what you reap; that tyrants will fail; and that if others join hands with tyrants then the speed of failure will increase. And it must be borne in mind with 100% surety that oppression is bound to fail ultimately. In any case, this is the belief (in the unseen results of his actions) that keeps a farmer working hard; and he knows that each seed when nourished properly and taken care of will produce hundreds of grains.
Whatever laws the Qur’an has given regarding humans, they also have this characteristic that they do not produce results quickly. The complaints we keep hearing are: that Allah is just; that He does justice to everyone; that He won’t let tyrants succeed. But we observe daily that tyrants flourish; that dishonest keep on piling wealth upon wealth; that no business succeeds if done honestly. Then what is this?! Why the laws of Allah are not working? Actually, they are working but we do not have faith in them. We are not like the farmer who works hard and perseveres months after months, follows the laws of farming; then only he gets the fruits of his lab or after a long time. We, on the other hand, sit at home and say: Since Allah’s law is that from one seed will grow hundreds of grains then the day when hundreds of grains grow we will go and get them. This is not (2:3 – the faith in the unseen. According to the Qur’an the faith in the unseen means: that every worker; every labourer; every technician who has the conviction that whatever I am working on – maybe it may take one month or six months or a year, but one day it will work; that one day the result of the effort will bear fruit for which the worker is persevering day and night even while suffering hardships and hunger. This is the steadfast belief in the mission’s objective followed by continuous action and 100% conviction in the unchangeable law of requital of the Qur’an that the result is bound to come out for sure – at the proper time. We have belied this belief. The truth is that people do not have faith in the law of requital. People may say: Allah’s law of requital does not work; that we see that dishonest succeed; that dishonest businessmen flourish. When this situation becomes common in society; when fear and anxiety abound – then how would people be motivated to work honestly?!
The Quran says: “?67:12those who are afraid of their Lord”. What is this “fear” and what is meant by being “afraid of”?
The Qur’an says that a nation raised on the basis of its laws as well as its followers will have no fear nor suffer from any anxiety (2:112; 2:62; 2:274; 2:277). We, on the hand, right from childhood, sow fear of Allah in the hearts of children. To children then Allah becomes a symbol of fear and trepidation. In fact, humanity gets crushed with fear. Let us take the meaning of: there is nothing in this to fear Allah. Whenever, the Qur’an uses for example: “?23:57 then it means: being careful from the adverse consequences of violating the law of requital, being afraid of the consequences that are bound to occur if one does not follow the message of Allah; that when one violates His laws then one will suffer their destructive consequences. This is what is meant by fear. This is a fear of the unseen destructive results of bad actions which do not appear right away.
The Qur’an mentions that those who opposed the Prophet (PBUH) used to taunt him: Why don’t you bring the destruction that you keep on warning us about all the time?! On this, Allah told that they do not recognize His mercy; i.e., they do not realize that He does not punish people right away after committing wrong; that there is a period of respite between the wrong action and its consequence. This respite has been bestowed by Him so that people might realize their mistake and correct themselves and thus be saved from destruction. The Qur’an says that if you correct yourselves then it is good for you only. The period of respite is also an essential part of the law of requital and, indeed, is a mercy from Allah. Because, if we eat unhealthy food and if we get a disease (e.g. cancer) right away then no one will be saved. In this period of respite, small symptoms appear as warning signs. If we pay attention to these symptoms and are able to see a connection between continuing unhealthy food habit and the symptoms, then due to this period of respite embedded in the process, there is hope; there is possibility for treatment and cure. If, on the other hand, there were immediate punishment for wrong action, then no human being in the world would be saved.

 
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Opinion

Preparing for the Month of Mercy

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By Maryam Amirebrahimi

A lot of us yearn to prepare for Ramadan, but we have no idea how to start. Below are a few tips to insha’Allah (Allah willing) help prepare our minds and hearts for this upcoming Month of Mercy.
Make the Intention
Simple to do, with a powerful impact. Maybe you want to prepare for Ramadan, but between school, work, family, and your other activities, you just have no idea how to fit in ‘prepare for Ramadan’ time. Instead of separating ‘prepare for Ramadan’ from your daily activities, make your daily activities a MEANS of preparation for Ramadan.
For example, perhaps your mom asked you to pick up your brother from school on the day you finally had time to read a few extra pages of Qur’an. Instead of feeling upset as if you have lost a great opportunity to prepare for Ramadan, make the intention that you are picking up your brother to please Allah and prepare for Ramadan by obeying your mother, helping your family members, building ties of kinship…and the list continues.
The point is that preparing for Ramadan does not have to be some magnificent, enormous, extra-special thing that needs to be done at a certain time of the day. Many of your daily actions can be turned into Ramadan preparation actions with a sincere intention insha’Allah.
Do these Easy-to-Reap-Reward Actions
Ask Allah to forgive your brothers and sisters. “Whoever seeks forgiveness for believing men and believing women, Allah will write for him a good deed for each believing man and believing woman.”
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Whoever says subhan Allah wa bi hamdih (praise and glory be to Allah) 100 times, morning and evening, his sins will be erased even if they are like the foam on the sea.”
If a person says, “Subhan Allah (glory be to Allah),” 100 times, a thousand good deeds are recorded for him and a thousand bad deeds are wiped away.
Remember Allah when you go shopping. “Whoever enters a market and says: “Laailahaillallahwahdahu la shareekalah, lahulmulkuwalahulhamduyuhyiwayumeetuwahuwahayyunlaayamoot, bi yadihilkhair, wahuwa ‘alakullishayinqadeer.” [There is nothing worthy of worship except Allah, alone without partner, to Him belongs dominion and praise; He causes life and death and He is the Living and does not die; in His Hand is all the good, and He is over all things competent] Allah will write for them a million good deeds and erase a million bad deeds and raise him a million levels.” Up Your Worship
To help condition your heart for this blessed month, intensify your worship before Ramadan begins. Just a small, consistent amount is enough. The Prophet told us: “The deeds most loved by Allah are those done regularly, even if they are small.”
Make a prayer List Today
This is THE MONTH to ask for EVERYTHING, both related to this life and the Next. Let us not wait until the last 10 nights to make special dua', and then onceEid passes realize that we completely forgot about fifty other things we needed to make dua' for. Let's start making our lists now, and add to it as more things come our way. Insha'Allah this should help us remember to make constant dua’ in this month where duaa' is accepted, and help our hearts pour out to the One Who can make those dua’ happen.
Write out Your Objectives for Ramadan
Praying all of your fard (obligatory) prayers? Praying all of your sunnahs? Reading the entire Qur’an? Giving $1 in charity a day? Making itikaaf (a time for reflection and prayer in seclusion) in the masjid? Leaving one serious sin that you’ve been trying to get away from for some time now? Sincerely turning back to Allah? Write out a list, put it somewhere you will see it, and make dua' for your success in fulfilling your objectives. Make a Plan! Look at your objectives and try to plan out how to realize them in this month. For example, perhaps you are really struggling to pray your sunnah prayers. In this month, realize the enormity of the ajr (reward) of praying the sunnah prayers. Think that perhaps these sunnah will be the deeds that will be heavy on your scale of good deeds when you are intensely in need of them-on Yawm al-Qiyamah, the Day of Judgment. Therefore, fight to keep doing them all throughout Ramadan. If you can't pray your 2 rakat after dhuhr (the afternoon prayer) right away, make sure to do them as soon as you get the chance.
Your plan might look something like this:
Objective: Pray all of my fardh prayers.
Method: Envision myself on the Day of Judgment seeing the weight of praying my sunnah consistently during this month. Make sure to pray sunnah immediately after salah (prayer). If I cannot, do it as soon as the opportunity arises-don’t let myself put it off! Another example is that of finishing the Qur’an:
Objective: Finish the entire Qur’an in this month.
Aim to strive this Ramadan. With a very small amount of effort, such as just making a small intention or adding a few extra acts of worship, we pray that Allah will help our hearts soften and honor us with making it easy to turn to Him and open up to Him.

 
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Opinion

Qur’an Establishes Criteria for Human Development

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By M Alam

In determining how the Qur’an establishes criteria for human development, we can begin by exploring verse 1 of Surah Al-Mulk (67:1).
“Blessed be He in whose hands is Dominion; And He over all things hath Power” [Yusuf Ali]. The Arabic word ‘Barakah’ in this verse has been translated as ‘Blessed.’ But the word ‘Blessed’ does not reveal the full meaning of ‘Barakah.’ The root of ‘Barakah’ is (ba) – (ra) – (kaf). The meaning of this root is: something which is firm and stable in its place, which acquires proper nourishment and, grows and develops as a result, for example, like a tree does. Starting as a tender sapling, it must continue to receive nourishment so that it grows and becomes strong to stand firm and remain stable in its place. Should it be uprooted from its place it would not be able to survive, let alone develop? The tree must continue to stand firm, not for a certain period of time but, for its entire life. The Holy Qur’an also uses the word ‘Barakah’ for Earth (41:10). The Earth, fittingly, remains stable in its place and is a source of nourishment, growth, and development for everything and everyone.
Allah asserts that all authority and sovereignty belong to Him (Qur’an 67:1). The purpose of His authority is: so that He may continue to provide provisions for nourishment and development to all. In this single assertion, significant Islamic principles are established: An Islamic system should be firmly rooted. It must be sound, strong, and stable; and its purpose should be to provide nourishment and provisions for the development of all living beings. The very first verse of the Qur’an (1:1) establishes an essential principle of the Qur’an, stating that a system is only worthy of praise and appreciation when it upholds and fulfils the responsibility of universal development for all.
That is why the Qur’an states that the Supreme Being, in whose hands lies all sovereignty and authority of the entire universe, is responsible for providing nourishment and provisions for the development of all beings, and it is He who maintains the control and stability so worthy of our praise. Allah has established measures and standards – (Qadr) in the words of the Qur’an – in order to accomplish this aim while He maintains full control over all aspects of Qadr. He has Power over all things (67:1).
This is but one kind of development, i.e., physical development. However, human beings are more than just the physical body. There is, in addition, an essential aspect of our humanity which the Quran refers to as our ‘Nafs’. We can call it ‘human soul,’ ‘human self,’ ‘human personality’ or ‘human individuality’ but, none of these descriptions fully explains the meaning of ‘Nafs’. Human beings become a part of humanity solely due to their ‘nafs’. With respect to the physical body alone, humans belong to the animal kingdom. But there is something else within each human for whose development God’s attributes are necessary. One can call these attributes Permanent Values. The ‘nafs’ acquires its capability for development through these core values.
One self-evident principle which the Quran establishes for humans and which is common with animals, is that is that the human body develops from what it takes, from what it consumes. But the “human self” develops from another principle: self develops by that which humans give for the welfare of others; what humans do in order to improve the life of others.
However, this internal self or ‘nafs’ cannot be seen, cannot be felt; and others are not able to feel or touch it. If one has the ‘eye’ – not just the physical eye but also the mind’s eye – then one can feel one’s own self as to how much it has developed. For this, the Quran mentions the characteristics and the attributes of the Momineen. In reality, these Momineen are manifestations of these attributes. For example, the Qur’an has mentioned that a Momin will try to survive with less and lead a life of hardship himself and give priority to others’ needs above his own. This is not a decision that can be comprehended at the level of the physical body but only at the level of what the Qur’an has called the ‘nafs’ meaning the ‘higher self.’
The Qur’an explains further that a Momin is one who does this act of giving priority to others above himself and does this of his own freewill. By doing this, a Momin feels happy that he has been able to fulfil the needs of someone else who is more deserving than himself, even though his own life itself might be very hard. What is that entity within a human being that makes the decision to do this sacrifice? The human body cannot do this.
The human body’s development is based upon instinct as it is the case with animals. No animal will give preference to some other animal over the needs of its own body. Man behaves similarly when he lives at the material level, i.e., at the animal level. In fact, those living at this level may even indulge in looting and exploiting others. In contrast, an animal, when his stomach is full, never cares what happens to the leftover food, whether another animal eats it or someone takes it away.
An animal sits contented and continues on carefree. It is only this human animal that despite his needs being little beyond bread, continues throughout life seeking to fill an ever unfulfilled greed. The animal does not exhibit greed once its basic requirements have been met. In other words, when man falls, he falls very deep to the lowest level – below even the animals!
Our human level is considerably different in that it is this level that the Qur’an addresses. And this is intended for our own self-development. The Quran’s Qadr is a standard or measure so that we may acquire the attributes established in the Qur’an for the Momineen. For example, take human respect. This respect should be established in society as universal standard irrespective of colour, race, language, age, religion, wealth, or status. This respect should be based solely on the basis of being human. This is the characteristic of the higher human self, not of the human body. As for the human body, the strong and powerful body will easily subdue the weak and poor one.

 
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