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Sex, Murder, Corruption and India’s Godmen

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That self-styled godman, the messenger of God, Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh, is now in jail hopefully for 20 years.
His followers who unleashed mayhem on August 25, after he was pronounced guilty of rape, burning Panchkula and devouring 36 lives have retreated to their homes.
His Dera Sacha Sauda, until the previous day was such a happening place, now wears a desolate look with uncertain future. His incarceration has emboldened people to come out and tell the tales of horror that they witnessed but never spoken about for fear of their life. Yes, they now say that anyone falling from grace of this baba would be simply done to death.
At least, a few hundred were allegedly killed in the dera at Singh’s orders. Rapes, they say were common, 90 per cent of 300 odd sadhvis in the dera having suffered it repeatedly. The judge of the CBI court, Jagdeep Singh is rightly commended by one and all for remaining unfazed by over 200,000 Singh-followers who had gathered at Panchkula. India thus could flaunt a feather in her cap about the rule of law, and that no one, howsoever, powerful he/she may be can escape the clutches of law. All has ended so well.
But to think a little the other way around. Does putting this monster into jail for 20 years cure the trauma his victims suffered? And they were not only those two who came out and stood their stead through the 15 year long gruelling trial.
Does it bring back the many who were murdered without any trace by this criminal fraudster? It is said that he has castrated hundreds of youth and made them impotent so as to bind them to his dera as slaves. Will they get their lost selves back?
Will those 36 people who lost their lives because of him in the recent violence come back? The punishment in law just serves as a deterrent and never as reparation of the loss the victims suffer. Moreover, the criminal justice system is blind to the root cause of the crime. It is supposed to rely on evidence and in effect on just the apparent cause, not the real cause that engenders it and sustains it.
Take for instance the much discussed criminal conduct of the state machinery in Haryana in allowing thousands of the dera followers to collect in Panchkula. It did not require intelligence to recognise that the numbers could cause trouble, irrespective of the nature of the judgement.
It was not negligence and hence innocent, it was clear complicity with the rapist, an actual assurance to him that the BJP government was with him. There was a huge deployment of police and security personnel to create a scene in favour of a petty rapist. Whatever happened was just the natural fall out.
For 3-4 days it was a veritable tamasha that stunned the country with this naked impunity of the Haryana government but also the central government. For, even the latter watched and contributed by cancelling trains, planes, etc. It was all meant to faze the judge when they failed to manage the withdrawal of the case as promised to Singh.
When the upright judge pronounced him guilty of the rapes, mayhem broke out. The police became bystanders, and only when it became clear that the inaction would boomerang that the cops were permitted to act. But by then the damage was done; public property worth crores of rupees was destroyed, over 270 people were injured and as many as 36 people had lost their lives.
Who but the Harayana government duly supported by central government was directly responsible for this? Can CM Khattar and PM Modi not be tried for this abominable crime—the mayhem, murders, and the worst, breach of public trust?
Despite the scathing criticism of the Punjab and Haryana High Court of the Chief Minister and even the Prime Minister, they ignored the countrywide public outrage over their shameful conduct, they did not feel the need to salvage the situation and haughtily kept claiming that the government had acted prudently.
As a matter of fact, it was clear that it was entirely a government-prompted show. After everything was done and anybody could imagine that nothing would happen thereafter another act of drama in impunity was enacted. A normal alert and imposition of Section 144 could have been good enough but the government dramatized it with huge mobilization of the police and the Army in and around Panchkula, Sirsa, Rohtak and many other places as preparation for pronouncement of sentence on Monday. It, of course, patted its back for controlling the situation. Crores of rupees were thus wasted over a rapist’s trial.
There is no institution to judge such impropriety of governments and hold them accountable for blatant waste of public resources. Kudos to the judiciary in this entire episode, the CBI judge and the high court of Haryana and Punjab, who did their duty, as an example for others. They deserve salute of this country for reassuring that all is indeed not over. The recent conduct of judiciary (privacy judgement) has really restored the dwindling confidence of people in that institution.
The larger question is not to be forgotten, which is what and who creates and promotes these godmen at the first place. When the directive principles of state policy in the Constitution mandate the governments to promote rational and scientific outlook in people, how are these babas allowed to build their empires?
Gurmeet Ram Rahim’s case is no exception; before him there were scores of them: Asaram (rapes and murders), Rampal (rapes and murders), Nithyananda Swami (caught in a sex romp with an actress), JayendraSaraswathiSwamigal (arrested on charge of murdering a temple manager, Sankararaman), Swami Premananda of Tiruchirapally ashram, Swami Sadachari (in jail for running a brothel), IchchadhariSant Swami BhimanandJiMaharaj of Chitrakoot (jailed for running a prostitution racket), Gnyanachaitanya (spent 14 years in jail for committing three murders), just to list relatively the more infamous ones. Making it apparent that all these fraudsters are seasonsed criminals. And their grip over their empire is so tight, and ties with the powers so strong that it is very rarely that something leaks to the outside world, and is pursued to the logical end. As in the current case where the rapist has been found guilty and jailed.
At the root of this menace of godmen (and godwomen) lies the genre of politics in the country. These people serve multiple interests of politicians. They consolidate vote blocks, they act as laundry for their black money, they blind people from seeing the reality, they provide a makeover for criminal acts of politicians, and so on.
Therefore, all politicians except perhaps for the Communist parties, are seen hobnobbing with these godmen and godwomen, that in turn boosts their market. All the prominent babas are patronized by politicians especially the top ones.
While all parties are involved in this game, the BJP has an ideological affinity with them because they are taken as the ambassadors of their hindu culture. Asaram who is cooling his heels in a Rajasthan jail since August 2013 for the charge of raping a 16 year school girl early that year was a favourite of the Gujarat BJP politicians who today control the country’s political establishment.
Sri SriRavishankar’s exploits in the World Cultural Festival last year are fresh in memory. While the National Green Tribunal (NGT) was against the idea of holding this gigantic festival on the Yamuna floodplains in New Delhi, it was allowed because PM Narendra Modi was to attend its inaugural ceremony. The expert panel estimated the cost of damage to the floodplains at Rs 42 crores and time required at 10 years, which the godman dismissed and had the temerity to counter charge the government and NGT for causing it.
In the dera episode, despite the trial of Gurmeet Ram Rahim for as serious a charge as rape of teenage girls, PM Modi and all BJP politicians had visited him and paid their respect. As per his adopted daughter Honeypreet Kaur, he felt cheated because during the last elections the BJP had promised him that the case would be managed.
The BJP not only supports these babas, but also has all sadhus and sadhvis as its MPs, MLAs, ministers and even chief minister. One of them, SakshiMaharaj, an MP, brazenly defended the rapist Singh and blamed the judge for the mayhem in Panchkula on August 25.
Baba Ramdev, who doubles as the head of the FMCG behemoth PatanjaliAyurved, aRs 10,561 crores company, came out in defence of the baba community. Ramdev himself is the biggest beneficiary of the BJP’s scandalous support to his controversial venture. Babas remain saintly souls only until skeletons begin to tumble out of their chests.
If we dig still deeper, we may find our brand of secularism and the election system, to be at its root. The post-colonial rulers shrewdly avoided secularism –the firewall between religion and politics–in the Constitution and adopted this weird dharmanirapekshata (State treating all religions equally), which by default inevitably meant capitulating to the majority religion, which is what the State has been doing.
Contrary to the impression that Indian Constitution is secular, there is no such word in the Constitution, except for the Preamble in which it was inserted during the Emergency. In any case, Preamble is the vision of the Constitution and not its operative part.
If real secularism had been adopted then, the rise of the communal forces would not have been possible. Another instrument is the adoption of the first-past-the-post type of election system, arguably the most unsuitable system for a country like India, a cauldron of deep drawn identities based on castes, religions, races, ethnicities, languages, etc. intersecting each other.
It is a system that guarantees perpetuation of class rule. The menace of the so called ‘vote bank’ politics that political parties accuse each other of, is verily due to it. There was an alternative in the form of proportional representation system (PR system), that could be customized to suit our specific requirement. But it is scarcely even spoken abou, even after we experience the monumental failure of Indian democracy.
Are we going to deal with the disease or just treat the symptoms?
(Courtesy: thecitizen.in)

 

 

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Opinion

The Mosque of the Two Qiblahs

The Kashmir Monitor

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By Spahic Omer

This is an important historical mosque. It is one of the earliest mosques in Islam. It was established during the Prophet’s time for an outlying neighbourhood of Madinah. Its significance lies in the fact that after the Prophet (pbuh) received a commandment to change the qiblah or prayer direction from al-Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem to al-Masjid al-Haram (Ka’bah) in Makkah, the entire congregation led by a companion in this mosque changed direction in prayer. Henceforth the mosque was known as masjid al-qiblatayn (the mosque of the two qiblahs) as both qiblahs were faced in a single prayer.

Al-Bukhari in his Sahih reports the incident as follows: “When the Prophet (pbuh) came to Madinah, he stayed first with his grandfathers or maternal uncles from Ansar. He offered his prayers facing Baitul-Maqdis (Jerusalem and its al-Masjid al-Aqsa) for sixteen or seventeen months, but he wished that he could pray facing the Ka’bah (in Makkah). The first prayer which he offered facing the Ka’bah was the ‘Asr prayer in the company of some people. Then one of those who had offered that prayer with him came out and passed by some people in a mosque who were bowing during their prayers (facing Jerusalem). He said addressing them: ‘By Allah, I testify that I have prayed with Allah’s Apostle facing Makkah (Ka’bah).’ Hearing that, those people changed their direction towards the Ka’bah immediately. Jews and the people of the scriptures used to be pleased to see the Prophet (pbuh) facing Jerusalem in prayers but when he changed his direction towards the Ka’bah, during the prayers, they disapproved of it” (Sahih al-Bukhari).

 

Architecturally, the mosque was meticulously attended to by many personalities throughout Muslim history. Many expansion, rebuilding and renovation programs took place. Among the first ones to do so was ‘Umar II. The Ottomans excelled in the same regard too. The present form of the mosque dates back to 1987. It was constructed as part of various development initiatives in Madinah by King Fahd. The plan and design of the mosque referred to the Islamic traditional architectural language and vocabulary as a source of inspiration. “Externally, the architectural vocabulary is inspired by traditional elements and motifs in a deliberate effort to offer an authentic image for an historic site” (archnet.org). The architect was Abdul-Wahid al-Wakil from Egypt.

The mosque is much smaller than the Quba’ mosque. That is perhaps the case because it is not on the list of the places which the Prophet (pbuh) recommended to be visited in Madinah. The comparatively small size is an indirect invitation to people not to regard it as important for visiting as the explicitly specified places, and so, not to throng to it needlessly. The interior of the mosque is much similar to those of the mosque of Ahmad b. Tulun and some Fatimid mosques in Cairo.

There are two minarets on the right and left sides of the main entrance. Though somewhat shorter, they resemble the four minarets of the Quba’ mosque. The bases of the minarets are square and the shafts octagonal. There are three balconies on each minaret, the second and third being supported by muqarnas. The first balcony marks the transition from the square base to the octagonal shaft. It itself is square, while the other two balconies are octagonal.

“The mosque can accommodate up to 2,000 worshipers. The main prayer hall adopts rigid orthogonal geometry and symmetry which is accentuated by the use of twin minarets and twin domes. Living accommodations for the imam, the muezzin and the caretaker are discreetly grouped in one block to the west of the main structure. The difference in level at the southeast corner of the site has been exploited to incorporate a sub-basement level which serves as the ablutions area for worshipers. To the north, where the ground level is lower, the prayer hall is raised one-story above ground level. Entry to the prayer hall is from the raised courtyard, also to the north, which can be reached by stairs and ramps from the main directions of approach” (archnet.org).

The prayer hall consists of a series of arches which support barrel-vaults running parallel to the qiblah wall. These vaults are interrupted in the middle by two domes which establish an axis in the direction of Makkah and its al-Masjid al-Haram. The main dome to the south is raised on a circular drum with clerestory windows which allow light to filter into the interior directly above the mihrab. There are 22 such windows filled with jaalis and colored glass. The second, false dome stands above the entrance. It is linked to the first dome by a small cross-vault to symbolize the transition from one qiblah to another. This slightly smaller dome does not have clerestory windows perforated in its drum. Both domes are supported by a combination of pendentives and simple forms of muqarnas, featuring only a few niches or alveoles. Domed are also some adjacent spaces of the mosque that provide extra facilities and services.

Before entering the mosque, one firstly steps inside a virtually enclosed arcade, whence he enters the mosque proper. This transitional arcade is covered by a series of miniature domes. The arcade reminds of entry sides in most Ottoman mosques, which are marked with porticos resting on wide columns and covered with small domes.

There are four rows of piers with which the arches are supported, each row having eight piers. In total, there are 32 piers, which is excessive for the size of the mosque. Moreover, the piers are huge, consuming much space inside the prayer area. They also accentuate the heavy mass of the building and its bulkiness.

The four corners of each pier have engaged columns, four columns for every pier. The columns are embedded in the piers’ mass and only partly project from their corner surfaces. They are cylindrical and plain, having no distinctive bases. Their capitals are decorated identically with stucco-work. They look like simple forms of the Byzantine capital. The same structural and decorative manoeuvre is found on the piers of the mosque of Ahmad b. Tulun.

There are five arcades parallel to the qiblah, corresponding to the number of barrel-vaults. In each arcade there could be three lines (sufuf) of worshipers, which means fifteen lines in total. Each line can accommodate about 120-130 worshipers. The women’s prayer section is on the second floor and occupies two arcades. The area is divided into two parts by the second or false dome. The area is protected by a wooden screen featuring latticework and ensuring peace and privacy.

The mihrab is rather deep and is gradually recessed. It has two depth levels, each level bordered by two columns that support the arched hood. Almost the entire mihrab frame, including the columns and the hood, are luxuriantly adorned with stucco-work featuring calligraphy, complex geometry and floral patterns. Of the two Qur’anic verses used as calligraphic embellishment, one is on the subject of qiblah (direction of prayer). The verse is partially used and its usage divided into two fragments, running across the extradoses of the two levels of the mihrab’s arched hood.

That the mihrab niche has two recessed levels could be symbolically interpreted as the two stages of establishing the qiblah: firstly towards Jerusalem and secondly towards Makkah. Thus, on the extrados of the outer mihrab’s level, the following Qur’anic words as the first part of the verse in question are inscribed, representing the first and preliminary stage of establishing the qiblah: “We have certainly seen the turning of your face, (O Muhammad), toward the heaven, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased” (al-Baqarah, 144). And on the extrados of the inner mihrab’s level, the following Qur’anic words as the second part of the verse are inscribed, representing the second and final stage of the qiblah establishment: “So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you (believers) are, turn your faces toward it (in prayer)” (al-Baqarah, 144).

Next to the mihrab stands a minbar or pulpit. It is made of wood and exhibits excellent workmanship. In terms of size and overall appearance, though, it bears a resemblance to the marble minbar in the Quba’ mosque.

Extending through the entire southern qiblah and left eastern sides of the mosque are two rows of small niches, one above the other, containing copies of the Holy Qur’an. Their openings are in the shape of pointed multi foil arches. On the qiblah side, there are 128 such niches, and on the left eastern side, 80. Each niche contains 14 copies of the Qur’an. Furthermore, all 32 piers on their right and left sides contain two more similar niches. The exception are eight piers that border the mosque’s axis towards Makkah under the two domes. Those piers have only one niche each, on the sides that do not face the axis.

Finally, on the opposite side of the qiblah, right above the entrance, there is in stucco-work a medium-size image of a mihrab niche. The image is two-dimensional and symbolizes the first qiblah towards Jerusalem. It is deliberately made fairly modest and raised high above the ground, so as not to draw much attention to itself and thus, perhaps, incite excessive symbolism and some untoward behavior. Across the image runs the axiom that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

The axiom intimates that the change of the qiblah was solely about affirming the Oneness of Allah and the prophet-hood of Muhammad (pbuh), and that the truth of Islam is universal, absolute, timeless and all-encompassing, including the earlier prophets, their own prophet-hood missions and their own peoples and legacies. The change of the qiblah must not be viewed through the prism of prejudice, narrow-mindedness and self-interests.

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Opinion

Never Belittle Your Firm Belief in Allah

The Kashmir Monitor

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By Shaimaa Elhomossany

One of the most shared human experiences is emotional suffering. Whether it comes from rejection, criticism, failure, disappointment, illness or loss, emotional suffering is always a heavy burden, commonly experienced, yet carried individually. Regardless of how much effort we put to neutralize or change our perception of it, we remain vulnerable to its consequences. Surprisingly though, emotional suffering is necessary for our journey in life. Allah designed this world, enclosed with suffering and pain, not only as a test but also as a means to get to know Him and draw closer to Him. This is why the Messengers and Prophets – peace be upon them all – may have had the greatest share of suffering, yet had the closest relationship with Allah.

Understanding the following will help us better approach, deal with and ultimately benefit from emotional suffering:

 

1) Suffering is an opportunity to advance in our spiritual relationship with Allah

It’s important to understand that the utmost goal of our lives is to worship Allah, as He says:

“And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.”

(Quran – 51:56)

This helps us realise that the most important work of our lives is to become the best servants of Allah that we can be. This servitude, however, entails acknowledging our vulnerability, helplessness, and dependability, because otherwise, we would be self-sufficient, omnipotent and unapproachable; we would be divine!

The truth is, we humans are created helpless, weak, exposed and constantly in need, so that we may seek refuge from Allah’s power. He can compensate for our weakness with His might, and from His sustenance, He provides for us. Only when in our utter helplessness we seek refuge, can we taste a level of closeness to Allah that doesn’t come from anywhere else.

We need to foster a new level of trust in His abilities, firm belief in Him and His watchfulness over us, so that we may be empowered to go through any hardship in life with Him and by Him, instead of weak and alone. Only through this opportunity can we establish a genuine servant-master relationship based on a true understanding and experience of Allah’s divinity and Lordship. Only when we understand where we stand in that relationship can we perfect the mission of our existence.

2) Feeling Sad Doesn’t Contradict Being A Good Believer

When we hear stories of Prophets, it is obvious that sadness is an integral part of these stories. Often, we can relate to their suffering. Take Prophet Yaqub, for example, whose story is anchored with sadness and struggle, and who acknowledged his emotional pain and opened up to it, but never allowed it to belittle his firm belief in Allah.

Or Lady Mariam, when the pain of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree, and in her intense emotional and physical suffering she said,

“Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten.”

(Quran- 19:23)

Despite that, she still occupies the status as one of the best women in Islam.

The best among all, Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, when burying his child Ibrahim said,

“The eyes are shedding tears and the heart is grieved, and we will not say except what pleases our Lord, O Ibrahim! Indeed, we are grieved by your separation.”
So, whatever ordeal you are dealing with in your life, don’t feel guilty about being open to it and interacting with it. The most important thing is not to go so far into sadness that you cross the line with Allah while grieving, by displeasing Him or turning away from Him in despair.

3) Don’t Reject It, Accept It

Knowing that this suffering chose you specifically over many others requires some contemplation. It was meant to be, and nothing that is meant to be is haphazard, on the contrary, there is always a good reason for it.

As we learn from the story of Prophet Musa’s encounter with Khidr in the Quran, nothing happens without a divine reason behind it. However, sometimes we, like Prophet Musa, are unable to truly understand what this reason is. This is especially true when things happen that seem bad or unjust. All we can do is learn to accept that there is a reason for it and have complete faith in Allah’s plan.

There is nothing we can do to stop the storm, until we realise that it’s not the storm that hurts, it’s resisting it that does. Learn to flow with your suffering and let it carry you to the other end, and trust me, there, you will meet a very different version of yourself. Just realise that the only way out is through.

4) Don’t Look At How It Is Affecting You, Rather Look At Who Brought It upon You

If we look at emotional suffering in and of itself, it will be very hard to deal with. However, if we look at it as something coming from the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate, the Source of Peace, the Reliever, the All Aware, the Watchful, the Responder to Prayers, the Wise, the Doer of Good, the Guide, and the All Comprehending, you will find there is no need to worry and you will be confident that no matter how difficult it may seem, Allah will send down His subtle kindness and gentleness along with it, making it easy for you. So, fix your heart towards the sender, not the consequences.

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Opinion

China’s brutal crackdown on the Uighur Muslims

The Kashmir Monitor

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By Jen Kirbyjen

China was sharply criticized for its mass detention of members of the Muslim Uighur community at a United Nations Human Rights Council meeting on Tuesday — but the country pushed back, saying that the condemnation was politically motivated.

Western governments, including those in Europe, the United States, and Canada, had the harshest words for China. The United States chargé d’affaires Mark Cassayre demanded that China “abolish all forms of arbitrary detention” for Uighurs and other Muslims minorities, and that China release the “possibly millions” of individuals detained there.

 

China’s Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng dismissed these and other comments as “politically driven accusations from a few countries that are fraught with biases.”
China has detained as many as 1 million Uighurs in so-called “re-educationcenters” and forced them to undergo psychological indoctrination programs — like studying communist propaganda and giving thanks to Chinese President Xi Jinping. Chinese authorities have also reportedly used waterboarding and other forms of torture on the ethnic minority.

Xinjiang, where about 10 million Uighurs and a few other Muslim minorities live, is an autonomous region in China’s northwest that borders Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Mongolia. It has been under Chinese control since 1949, when the communist People’s Republic of China was established.

Uighurs speak their own language — an Asian Turkic language similar to Uzbek — and most practice a moderate form of Sunni Islam. Some activists, including those who seek independence from China, refer to the region as East Turkestan.

Once situated along the ancient Silk Road trading route, Xinjiang is oil- and resource-rich. As it developed along with the rest of China, the region attracted more Han Chinese, a migration encouraged by the Chinese government.

But that demographic shift inflamed ethnic tensions, especially within some of the larger cities. In 2009, for example, riots broke out in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang, after Uighurs protested their treatment by the government and the Han majority. About 200 people were killed and hundreds injured during the unrest.

The Chinese government, however, blamed the protests on violent separatist groups — a tactic it would continue to use against the Uighurs and other religious and ethnic minorities across China.

Xinjiang is also a major logistics hub of Beijing’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative, a trillion-dollar infrastructure project along the old Silk Road meant to boost China’s economic and political influence around the world. Xinjiang’s increasing importance to China’s global aspirations is likely a major reason Beijing is tightening its grip.

All of which means China has increasingly tried to draw Xinjiang into its orbit, starting with a crackdown in 2009 following riots in the region and leading up to the implementation of repressive policies in 2016 and 2017 that have curbed religious freedom and increased surveillance of the minority population, often under the guise of combating terrorism and extremism.

The Chinese government justifies its clampdown on the Uighurs and Muslim minorities by saying it’s trying to eradicate extremism and separatist groups. But while attacks, some violent, by Uighur separatists have occurred in recent years, there’s little evidence of any cohesive separatist movement — with jihadist roots or otherwise — that could challenge the Chinese government, experts tell me.

China’s crackdown on the Uighurs is part of a policy of “de-extremification.” It’s generated repressive policies, from the banning of certain Muslim names for babies to chilling reports of torture and political indoctrination in so-called “reeducation” camps where hundreds of thousands have been detained.

Communist China has a dark history with reeducation camps, combining hard labor with indoctrination to the party line. According to research by Adrian Zenz, a leading scholar on China’s policies toward the Uighurs, Chinese officials began using dedicated camps in Xinjiang around 2014 — around the same time that China blamed a series of terrorist attacks on radical Uighur separatists.

China escalated pressure on Muslim minorities through 2017, slowly chipping away at their rights with the passage of religious regulations and a counterterrorism law, according to the Uyghur Human Rights Project, a pro-Uighur group based in Washington, DC.

In 2016, Xinjiang also got a new leader: a powerful Communist Party boss named Chen Quanguo, whose previous job was restoring order and control to the restive region of Tibet. Chen has a reputation as a strongman and is something of a specialist in ethnic crackdowns.

Increased surveillance and police presence accompanied his move to Xinjiang, including his “grid management” policing system. As the Economist reported, “authorities divide each city into squares, with about 500 people. Every square has a police station that keeps tabs on the inhabitants. So, in rural areas, does every village.”

Security checkpoints where residents must scan identification cards were set up at train stations and on roads into and out of towns. Authorities have reportedly used facial recognition technology to track residents’ movements. Police confiscate phones to download the information contained on them to scan through later. Police have also confiscated passports to prevent Uighurs from traveling abroad.

Some of the targeted “de-extremification” restrictions gained coverage in the West, including a ban on certain Muslim names for babies and another on long beards and veils. The government also made it illegal to not watch state television and to not send children to government schools. The government reportedly tried to promote drinking and smoking, because people who didn’t drink or smoke — like devout Muslims — were deemed suspicious.

Chinese officials have justified these policies as necessary to counter religious radicalization and extremism, but critics say they are meant to curtail Islamic traditions and practices.

The Chinese government is “trying to expunge ethnonational characteristics from the people,” James Millward, a professor at Georgetown University, told me. “They’re not trying to drive them out of the country; they’re trying to hold them in.”

“The ultimate goal, the ultimate issue that the Chinese state is targeting [is] the cultural practices and beliefs of Muslim groups,” he added.

“Re-education camps” — or training camps, as the Chinese have called them — are perhaps the most sinister pillar of this de-extremification policy. Experts estimate as many as 2 million people have disappeared into these camps at some point, with about 1 million currently being held.

The Chinese government first denied these camps even existed. When confronted about them at the United Nations in August, officials claimed they were for the “assistance and education” of minor criminals. China’s state-run media has dismissed the reports of detention camps as Western media “baselessly criticizing China’s human rights.”

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