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Patriarchy in the workplace

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By Saundarya Rajesh

 

According to the ‘Handbook of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace, (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013’, issued by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, a work environment that is intimidating or offensive to women constitutes a type of sexual harassment

 

According to the ‘Handbook of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace, (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013’, issued by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, a work environment that is intimidating or offensive to women constitutes a type of sexual harassment

Pugs are the most adorable pets but terribly fussy eaters. Once, my pug decided to go on a hunger strike and I had to take him to the local vet. The other “patient” at the clinic was a beautiful beagle accompanied by a young woman of not more than 20.

Pritvi (that was the young woman’s name) and I got talking and I discovered that she was a smart, well-informed engineer-to-be, the president of her college students’ union, and also a volunteer at a social cause dear to me. We spoke at length about women’s advancement and the #MeToo movement and as we were preparing to leave, I asked her where she lived. She mentioned a colony that was usually deserted at the time of the evening and I replied, a tad worried, “It must be pretty lonely at this time, Pritvi. I don’t mind dropping you. Are you sure you are comfortable going home by yourself?” To which Pritvi said with a smile, “If I decide to be afraid, then I am further reinforcing patriarchy!”

That was a statement that got me thinking deeply. For most of us, ‘Patriarchy’ is a hugely obscure subject. Some of us identify it as a philosophy which is bandied about by feminists (folks who themselves are largely misunderstood and misclassified), while others believe that it is usually code for “Let’s blame it all on the men”. As such, the real problems associated with patriarchy are instantly rejected even by the most well-intentioned male, simply because it creates a psychological distance between what it really is and what it is perceived to be. When movements like #MeToo and #TimesUp emerge, the definition of patriarchy is further questioned, often providing a contradictory discourse which does more harm than good.

Let us for a moment stop and understand what patriarchy really is. It appears as a social and ideological construct which allots specific roles to men and women, with the underlying theory that men are superior to women. It has been around for so long that it has infiltrated what we assume is normal behaviour, custom or tradition. Women are not the only victims of patriarchy, men are too. Likewise, some of the strongest propagators of patriarchal biases are not only men, but women too. Many rituals which we harmlessly pass on from generation to generation have the strong odour of patriarchy when examined critically. Its influence has spread clandestinely even into the confines of our home, our conversations, our socialising of children, the media and of course, our workplaces.

Constructed as it is on the tenet of male superiority, a patriarchal workplace does not see women as central to things. In fact, one of the most blatant evidences of the existence of patriarchy in the workplace is the gender stereotyping of roles assigned to men and women. Women are assigned jobs that are usually considered “ladies’ areas of expertise”, such as front desk executives, secretaries and other peripheral jobs. Most of the strategy-building, decision-making and P&L related roles are handled by men. Opportunities to influence power are not easily passed on to women – even to those who are career-intentional. Women who aspire to return to a career after a break, face the keen edge of patriarchy when they are penalised for a “wrong” life choice. You can recognize the hold of patriarchy when you hear off-colour jokes, sexist remarks and stereotypical pulling down of women. And when the workplace has an ugly underbelly that allows sexual harassment of women, it is evidence of patriarchy’s reversal to the days of the Neanderthal cave man.

In the Handbook of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace, (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013, issued by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, there are broadly, two kinds of sexual harassment. 1) Quid Pro Quo, where the woman is, either directly or indirectly, asked for sexual favours in exchange for some benefit and 2) Hostile Work Environment which includes an intimidating or an offensive work environment. The booklet also defines “Sexual Harassment” as one or more of the following unwelcome acts or behaviour (whether directly or by implication), namely: 1. Physical contact or advances; 2. A demand or request for sexual favours; 3. Making sexually coloured remarks; 4. Showing pornography; 5. Any other unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of a sexual nature.

Yet, in spite of such unequivocal clarification, despite the government mandated POSH (Prevention of Sexual Harassment) and ICC (Internal Complaints Committee), sexual harassment persists, and it took more than 80-odd years since women entered mainstream careers, for the #MeToo movement to erupt, in defiance of the abusers. What can be done in our workplaces to ensure the real safety of women? In my opinion, it boils down to four key aspects.

Powerful affirmation from the Leader – It is paramount for the leader of the organization – the MD, CEO or Country Head – to set the tone at the top to ensure that there is no ambiguity about safety for women. The MD of a Fortune 100 company sent out a personal email to his direct reports and their teams that he was taking personal responsibility for the safety of every employee and he was accessible to receive any issues or suggestions on making their workplace safer for women. When the boss herself takes a stand that the organization will have zero tolerance for any kind of sexual harassment, it results in the culture of safety being set.

The raising of complaints against inappropriate conduct, even minor incidents – When certain charges are trivialised, sexual harassment thrives and continues to persist. A business head of an organization refused to hear a case of sexual harassment in his workplace, going on record to state, “I don’t have time for this BS!” Subsequently, he spent considerable time in the court trying to sort out a criminal case filed against his organization. Even at the cost of erring on the side of caution, it is better to investigate all complaints and ensure astute closure of the same.

Creating a culture of Trust and Respect – Any whistle-blower mechanism like #MeToo erodes trust within the workplace. During a recent recruitment drive, the hiring managers sent out subtle messages that they would prefer not to hire women in their teams for fear of a #MeToo in their workspaces. The benefits of a gender diverse workplace have been proven time and again and if we allow the priority of ensuring safety for women to derail the power of inclusion, that results in a double whammy. It is imperative to put together programs and interventions that recreate trust and respect.

Placing women in influential roles – Originating as it does from the power-mores of patriarchy, sexual harassment is most often a power game. A couple of years ago, a prominent company was notorious for having a toxic workplace in which male abusers in powerful positions got away with harassment. Women’s attrition was high; employee engagement was at an all-time low. Today, this is an organization that wins laurels for being among the most respected, productive and safe workplaces for women. The magical change began when the management brought in a woman leader to head the business. While it is important to hire women in large numbers to create a safety net for all women, it is even more critical to put them in positions of power.

To quote Pritvi, the woman at the pet clinic, it is important to acknowledge the sway of patriarchy. It is equally important to acknowledge that with the advent of movements like #MeToo, the topic of women’s safety has entered the public consciousness with unprecedented intensity. It has created a sense of community among the survivors and shaken up the collective psyche of a society that had hitherto responded with disbelief, disgrace and humiliation to the victims. In short, the #MeToo movement has challenged the patriarchal social norm that only men’s careers and reputation matter. While the society and even the home are still strong bastions of patriarchy, let’s begin by ensuring that the workplace is a turf that belongs to all and where women do matter. And that is a good beginning.

 


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The contours of contest ahead

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By Mahesh Rangarajan

This summer will see a carnival of democracy in the general election. Much has changed in just five years. The elan of Narendra Modi’s party is more muted this time. Last weekend, key opponents, the Samajwadi Party and the BahujanSamaj Party, joined forces in Uttar Pradesh, making the contest real and not a walkover. The Index of Opposition Unity cannot predict outcomes but no one can afford to ignore it.

The Congress’s victories in the Assembly elections in three north Indian States have given it a shot in the arm. Equally important, the older party is firming up alliances in the southern States. The 131 Lok Sabha seats in five States (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana) and two Union Territories (Lakshadweep and Puducherry) have been critical to it in times of trouble.

 

The Telangana poll outcome was sobering for both the large national parties. Regional nationalism is not new to Indian politics: Jammu and Kashmir and Tamil Nadu were precursors. Regional formations have long governed West Bengal, Odisha and now Telangana. They may well hold the keys to power in New Delhi.

In 2014, it was the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) that led in securing allies. Between then and now, BJP president Amit Shah has helped expand its footprint. Not only does it have more MLAs than the Congress, but its cadre fights every election like there is no tomorrow.

The challenge lies elsewhere. The Congress may have lost in 2014 and come down to a historic low of less than one in five votes cast. Yet, only a decade age, in May 2009, the roles had been in reverse. It was Congress that had then polled 29% and the BJP just 19% of the popular vote.

This time is different. It is 1971 that will be the textbook case for the ruling party. When the Grand Alliance said it would oust Indira Gandhi, she replied she wished to banish poverty. She won hands down.

Mrs. Gandhi did not have to contend with a powerful Dalit-led formation in the Ganga valley which commands 20% of the vote. Many of today’s regional parties were yet to be formed. She captured the public imagination. It was a gamble and she won hands down. Mr. Modi too will fight to the last voter. He will try to be the issue. He has sounded the tocsin against dynasty, caste and corruption. Hence the record in getting visible benefits to the individual and the family. The gas cylinder, the light bulb, that rural road: each will, he hopes, add to his appeal.

History has another instance too. The 2004 general election was held early. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was confident that ‘India was Shining’. The dream came apart on counting day. Rather than a unified Opposition (for there was none in the all-important State of Uttar Pradesh), ground-level discontent denied the ruling alliance another chance.

And yet, there is the cloud of the horizon. Even in 2004, the Congress was only a whisker ahead of the BJP — just seven seats more in the Lok Sabha. The Congress had 145 seats to the BJP’s 138. The key was on the ground, where the mood had shifted. The economic upturn began in 2003, but voters did not see gains early enough for the ruling bloc to reap an electoral harvest.

In 2014, the challenger drew on the tiredness with a decade of a Congress-led government and promised a fresh start. Runaway inflation and the spectre of corruption undercut the appeal of the Congress. This time the issues have changed. It is the squeeze on farm incomes and rural debt that are the key poll planks. Similarly, the issue of jobs is more pressing than ever. Cultivators across all strata and young people seeking productive employment want answers.

Two States are key. Maharashtra, a State critical in the histories of both the Congress and the BJP, is not only seeing a coming together of Opposition forces; it is undergoing drought and rural distress. Ominously, key farmer-led allies have walked across. Uttar Pradesh, a bastion of the BJP, has rival Dalit- and Mandal-led parties coalesce for the first time in a quarter century. Both States have something in common. In both, sugarcane cultivation is a determinant of electoral fortunes.

Cane (not caste) and jobs (not community slogans) may hold the key. Ganna and Naukri, not reservations or the emotive Mandir issue. What matters more: bread or identity? Even when both count what takes precedence?

Government policy has had a key role in this denouement. By according priority to consumers in cities (who want low prices for cereals, oil seeds and pulses), the government did not have to pay heed to rural residents who need to earn more. The latter, as producers, are larger in number and percentage than in any other democracy.

India still lives and votes in its villages. Under Mr. Shah, the cadre, organisation and outreach have made the BJP a vastly larger party than any other. But economic policies can strain such organisational gains.

Democracy is about more than development. In a polity where people can throw their rulers out, it is centrally about politics. Since 1999, there has been a bi-nodal system, and the choice is not simply between Mr. Modi and Congress president Rahul Gandhi.
We have effectively a one-party government with a firm hand on the wheel (but with the danger of an over-centralisation of power).

Against this, is ranged a looser coalition in which regional forces and rural interests have more play. Needless to add, the latter will be rockier, more contentious and tough to manage in a coherent fashion.

The Modi government is driven by ideology and not pragmatism on a range of issues. This is the first ever BJP government with a view of culture, history and politics that seeks to remake history as much as the future. Is this the party’s agenda or the country’s? This is a question in the background: if the Ram temple issue comes to the fore, it will be a major choice for the voter.

The pluralism and Hindutva debate have another dimension more so than ever, namely the federal question. Across the Northeast (including Sikkim), far more important to the country than its 25 Lok Sabha seats indicate, the idea of citizenship is at variance with the new Citizenship Bill passed by the Lok Sabha. Across the country, State-level parties see an accretion of powers in the federal government unseen since the 1980s.

True, Mr. Modi has a wider mass appeal than any one since Mrs. Gandhi. But history is witness that such appeal can also have limits if voters decide that enough is enough. Has that point been reached? We simply do not know.

More central is the question of questions. Are you better off than you were five years ago, and if not, why not? If so, and even if not, do you think we are moving in the right direction?

In 2014, The Economist observed that if India had the per capita wealth of Gujarat, the country would rank with Spain. Has that dream come true or it is unravelling and fast? How voters answer that will show who they stand with.

(The writer is Professor of History and Environmental Studies at Ashoka University, Haryana. Source: The Hindu)

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Opinion

Headwinds rock Rahul, Modi

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By Jawed Naqvi

Recent headlines have offered clues about the way the wind is blowing before the general elections in India. A make-or-break element in Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s re-election bid in May lies in Uttar Pradesh. It was here that he swept the 2014 polls on the back of anti-Muslim blood and gore set off in Muzaffarnagar, what some in the prime minister’s choral media have praised as ‘Modi Magic’. Spurring his win in the country’s most populous state was a palpably disharmonious opposition. That may have changed this year — or has it?

Let’s quickly scour the headlines. My first story refers to the Congress party’s bizarre plan to contest all 80 parliamentary seats in UP on its own. What then becomes of the promised coalition?

 

The second story seemed facetious at first but it describes a crippling fallout on the BJP of its ban on slaughter of cattle in UP. The alarmed party must now contain unwanted cattle in their post-productive state when they become a load on the farmers. Will the revered holy cow be artificially inseminated to produce more cows than bulls, as the animal husbandry minister says? How serious is the looming crisis in a political season?

A fourth story is The Hindu’s damning report by a former Indian supreme court judge, which gathered dust in the vaults of the apex court for over a year, on fake encounter deaths in Gujarat. Will it haunt the BJP together with an equally strong concern expressed by UN rights officials about allegations of widespread killings in Yogi Adityanath-ruled Uttar Pradesh?

And finally, the party’s national convention addressed by Modi where he offered himself as the only choice to lead India, which needs a ‘mazbootsarkar’, a strong government. The opposition alliance can only produce a ‘majboorsarkar’, says he, a government weakened by its own political compromises.

Two of the stories should suffice to indicate the headwinds ahead. The Congress party’s announcement of fighting all seats in UP, came not surprisingly a day after the backward caste Samajwadi Party (SP) and the Dalit BahujanSamaj Party (BSP), once bitter rivals,

declared a joint campaign in 76 constituencies, leaving four for Congress, presumably. In the last vote count, BSP (22.23 per cent) and the SP (28.07pc) totalled more than BJP (41.35pc) and Congress put together. Congress is an insignificant player in UP, and its irresponsible claim to contest all seats makes it a laughing stock given the high stakes in May.

What lies behind the absurdity? The fact is that Congress, perennially described a family enterprise of the Gandhis, is actually a coalition of powerful satraps, usually but not always shored up by Mumbai businessmen.

The business clubs have a chronic allergy to the Gandhis, though they are not averse to backing a Narasimha Rao or a Manmohan Singh in Congress. The allergens are old and damning. Nehru had jailed their leading businessman for corruption, Indira Gandhi had shut their banks, and Rajiv Gandhi ordered them to get off the backs of Congress workers. The tycoons came back hard at him with the Bofors smear though.

In the recent elections in Madhya Pradesh, a local Congress chieftain deemed close to a particular business family, opposed and subverted an alliance with Mayawati’s Dalit party. Congress won but not cleanly and it needs the BSP to sustain a majority. In Uttar Pradesh, the SP has strong ties with key business families, including the one that Rahul Gandhi has named in the Rafael warplanes scandal.

Given the state of play, the young Gandhi should ideally decide whether he wants to be a compromised representative of disparate, even contrary interests as prime minister, something his satraps would like him to be. Or should he be nudging the opposition parties, bereft of common ambition, with a Nehruvian vision to forge a truly durable secular polity?

The left had done this successfully with Indira Gandhi. The model can only strengthen Congress and its essentially left-leaning mass base. See it as a Tony Blair-Jeremy Corbyn moment within the Indian equivalent of the Labour Party. Else, the system in India, a tycoon-run deep state, would continue to harness Congress satraps and the BJP in a bind that undermines the constitution’s fair promise.

Signs of disarray in the opposition should comfort the BJP, but evidently the party for the first time is looking mortally afraid of losing. From ‘Congress-free India’, Modi is now talking about ‘a weak opposition government’. There’s more evidence of panic in Omar Rashid’s story in The Hindu about a cattle market that has collapsed, about stray cows raiding UP farms as impoverished farmers abandon their hungry animals.

Explaining the dilemma, BJP’s minister for animal husbandry said: “UP is a state of small and minor farmers, with two crop seasons. For 15 days of ploughing, a farmer no longer wants to feed two bullocks all year round.” To solve the problem the government has started a sex-sorted scheme under which the chances of a cow producing a female calf would be as high as 90pc to 95pc. Simultaneously, the BJP government is imposing a 0.5pc gaukalyan (cow welfare) cess on liquor and road toll collections, besides doubling an existing 1pc levy on the incomes of wholesale produce markets. The proceeds will fund construction and maintenance of new cow pens.

While the kitten entangles itself in the ball of wool, the opposition should be taking control of the narrative. But Congress, far from offering a vision, which only it could, is saddled with its recent promise to make cow urine economically viable while discussing the grade of the Brahminical thread Rahul Gandhi wears, neither of which is part of the winning calculation for the SP and the BSP.

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Opinion

The social fibre is in disarray

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By Tawfeeq Irshad Mir

Kashmir lost its claim to heaven a long time ago but the debate today is not about ‘why’ but ‘who’ caused the paradise to fly away, leaving behind its miserable and yet romantic claimants.Say Kashmir, and the sweet aroma of pine takes over the mind fluttering among images of valley flowers,

While the valley is brewing to shivered cold, resorting to bone ache, and suddenly you get to hear the act, that tender your muscles and your brain starts oscillating in agony. While I was on the way to home, and as usual my phone keeps on beeping with variable feeds, and at a moment my eyes stuck to a feed, mentioning that a baby was thrown outside in a cartoon enveloped in polythene, across the road from the city’s maternity hospital Lal Ded. Not the first time, I got to hear such inhuman act, previously such incidents have filled the social networking sites with tetra byte data.

 

Kashmir, a Conservative populace with rigid religious beliefs, where such incidents dwindle the heart, to the core and ionise in the surroundings within fraction of the second.

,,, “oh foetid soul, you aren’t a burden,
Your cravings, your presence, is sacred,
” unworthy are those, who abandon you,
,,, “you are born to take nap at the realm of GOD,

This mischievous act is on surge in Kashmir citing numerous incidents in the past, Now concerning the aetiology of this social chaos, : over the years there has been a paradigm shift in the psychological, behavioural, living style of the people inhabiting valley, leading to variant changes, pertaining to psychosexual onslaught, Now we see pre-marital sexual relations, a non-serious concern leading to apathy in the ethos of society, the ramifications of this are vivid and perturbing, the couple especially in their teen ages, moved by their sudden hormonal changes engage in sexual relationships, and in certain cases, unaware of its complications, maybe due to lack of knowledge, debarring the use of protective devices, the female counterpart conceives and remains unaware for most of the time, as fear of surroundings, the societal rejection, the client fears to express the event to parents, till she develops such symptoms, and in reaction, either they go for illegal termination of pregnancy or wait for the term to deliver remaining in isolation carried out in privacy, and later the baby is abandoned.

In certain cases, the baby delivered from legal couple, go for termination, if it’s unwanted, or a female,, called female infanticide “in Kashmir such incidents are on record where foetus laden with blood were found in toilets, on the footsteps of shrines, some years back, an abandoned baby, caught by mob of dogs was noticed outside Lal Ded hospital, such incident shocked the consciousness of people,.

Congenital defects :Every single creation of God is not futile, but I can say, a sheer ignorance, the babies who are born with genetic defects have every right to continue life, even Stephen Hawkins was born with hereditary defect, still he rose to prominence, even normal human couldn’t think ever, contributes to the cause of abandoning babies, recently a horrendous incident captivated the conscious minds of valley where a father tried to Bury his live baby, citing the reasons of poverty, that he can’t afford the care of baby born with genetic defect.

Now describing the risk factors, loosening bondages from religious acuity, problems in socialisation, faults in upbringing, difficulties in coping up with puberty, lack of education, accelerate such incidents.

The treatment is more of a belief than literal.The old age adage holds true everywhere, we should focus on preventive strategies, we should be more religious, because not a single religion advocates such horrendous act, be more conscious when you go for such a relationship, we should profoundly act on such incidents, awareness schedule should be set up,
We need to develop legal resolutions for those abandoned, because we have many childless couples, so as to create balance.

Certainly at the end, those who abandon live births, are abandoning the humanity, the moment they opt for such gigantic mischief, they turn into wilds, and their ability to be human seizes.

(The writer is perusing graduation in Nursing at GMC, Srinagar. He can be reached at: [email protected])

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