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Know All About The Different Kinds Of Hernia And How To Deal With Them




Hernia is a condition in which an organ pushes itself through a muscle opening or a tissue that holds the organ in place. It happens when a fatty tissue squeezes through a weak spot in the surrounding muscles. For instance, a hernia may occur when a part of intestines break through weakened area in the abdominal wall. Abdomen is the most common place where hernia occurs. But they can also appear in belly button, upper thigh and groin areas.

While hernias aren’t life threatening immediately, they don’t go away on their own. At times hernia removal needs to be done by surgery in order to avoid serious complications.

Hernia is more common in men than women


Some of the most common kinds of hernias are incisional – which result from an incision, inguinal – which happen in the inner groin, femoral – which appears in the outer groin, umbilical – which happens in the belly button and hiatal – which happens in the upper stomach.

Hernia causes

A combination of muscle weakness and strain results in a hernia. Common reasons for muscle weakness include: any failure in the abdominal wall in the womb, ageing, damage causes by injury and chronic coughing. Causes of straining include pregnancy, constipation, heavy weight lifting, abdominal fluid, sudden weight gain, surgery or persistent coughing. Depending on what causes it, a hernia may develop in a short period of time or take longer to develop.

Kinds of hernia

  1. Umbilical hernia

This kind of hernia is common among children and babies under 6 months. It occurs when intestines bulge through abdominal wall near belly button. Umbilical hernia causes a bulge near a child’s belly button, especially when they are crying. Unlike any other hernia, umbilical hernia goes on its own as abdominal muscles become stronger as the child grows up.

  1. Inguinal hernias

Inguinal hernias make up for 70% of the hernias. They occur when intestines push out through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall. The inguinal canal is found in the groin. It is more common in men than women. Men’s testicles descend through their inguinal canal after birth. While the canal is sometimes supposed to close behind the testicles, it doesn’t close properly at times and leave behind a weakened area. This makes men more prone to risks of hernia.

  1. Hiatal hernia

In case of a hiatal hernia, part of the stomach protrudes from diaphragm into the chest cavity. Usually, hiatal hernia occurs in people over 50 years of age. It is only in case of a congenital birth defect that a child gets hiatal hernia. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common symptoms of hiatal hernia. It causes the stomach to leak back into the esophagus and results in a burning sensation.

Hernia risk factors

Obesity or being overweight, having history of hernias in family, chronic coughing, chronic constipation and smoking are factors which increase your risk of developing hernia. Cystic fibros, a condition which impairs functioning of lungs and causes chronic cough, can also increase risk of developing hernia.

Hernia symptoms

A bulge or a lump in the affected area is the most common symptom of hernia. Besides, pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen, especially when bending, coughing or lifting is a common symptom of hernia.

Experiencing burning or aching sensation of the bulge, acid reflux, pain in the chest and experiencing difficulty in swallowing are other symptoms of hernia.

Symptom of umbilical hernia is when you feel the bulge when the baby cries.

There are some cases when hernia gives no symptoms. You may only get to know when you get a medical check-up done.

How to deal with hernia

Lifestyle changes, medication and surgeries are the common ways of dealing with hernia.

  1. Lifestyle changes

Introducing some changes in your diet can help in treating symptoms of hiatal hernia. You should avoid eating heavy meals and lying down on the bed immediately after eating a meal. Maintaining a healthy body weight can also help in dealing with hernia. Avoid eating foods which cause acid reflux or heart burn.

  1. Medication

Hiatal hernia can be dealt with by taking medicines which reduce stomach acid and heart burn.

  1. Surgery

If dietary changes and medications don’t work, surgery is the ultimate way to remove hernia. Surgeries are also helpful for hernias which are growing in size and are causing pain and discomfort.



The Perfect Guide To Take Care Of Your Arthritic Knee

The Kashmir Monitor



A certain nip in the air, frequent urge for a steaming cup of tea and an endearing love for sleeping a little longer inside the snuggly quilt is back. The season of blankets, warmers and soups is here! While it brings with itself festive spirit and joy, it is dreaded by the elderly and arthritis patients for it increases their difficulty. With a dip in the mercury, many patients experience increased knee pain, stiffness and unease due to restricted bodily circulations and elasticity of soft tissues caused by atmospheric pressure. Often mistaken as age-related wear and tear or seasonal change, it could be potential signs of arthritis inflammation of the joints and seek medical intervention

Timely clinical advice and necessary precautions can go a long way in managing this pain that aggravates with the onset of winter. It can be addressed by making certain lifestyle changes.

“People tend to become lazy in winters. This can impact the knees and increase the level of pain in cases where people are already undergoing arthritis treatment.A regular 30-minute workout can help lubricate the joints and stimulate blood circulation in the body,” stressed Dr. Dhananjay Gupta, Fortis Hospital, New Delhi.


“Staying active is the key to strengthen the muscles supporting the joint, thereby helping in improved joint function. Along with exercises, staying hydrated can control wear and tear of joints,” he added.

For those suffering from chronic knee pain or knee arthritis, the cold can be worse for the joints. But, if the pain is acute and knee arthritis is in the chronic or degenerative stage, one can consider Total Knee Replacement (TKR) therapy.

Sharing his take on the effectiveness of the therapy, Dr.Gupta shared, “When all the alternate treatments such as medications, arthroscopic interventions fail to provide relief to the patients, a TKR therapy is advised. It is the last option for treating severely impaired knees and is one of the safest orthopedic procedures.By replacing a diseased knee cap with a sturdy implant, it not only helps relieve pain, restores knee function but also improves the individual’s quality of life significantly. With a strict physiotherapy routine, a patient can be completely mobile within 6 weeks of the procedure.”

Take precautionary measures. Sometimes, patients who have sought clinical advice or had a knee surgery in the past, experience pain during winters. A visit to the doctor will help you understand the symptoms better. The medical expert will analyse your medical profile and prescribe precautions accordingly- workouts, physiotherapy, proper diet, supplements etc. to strengthen bones during winters.An active lifestyle can keep joint pain away, especially for arthritis patients. Don’t let the cold wave outdoor deter you from exercise. Push yourself to take small walk breaks at work or while lounging around at home to keep your weight under control.There is nothing that heals the joints like Vitamin D does. Get as much sun as possible to fuel aching joints. And regulate your diet with nutritious and vitamin rich foods such as orange, spinach, broccoli, dairy products and dry fruits.A knee joint takes maximum stress than any other joint, so instead of wearing heavy sweaters and cardigans that can add up to your body weight chose layering of light yet warm clothes.Joint movement improves blood circulation to its peripheral areas leading to reduced stiffness. So, move out of your blankets to stretch and move around a little.

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Eat more dietary fibre to lower risk of non-communicable diseases

The Kashmir Monitor



Here’s another reason why you should increase your consumption of dietary fibre!

According to a recent study, high intake of dietary fibre and whole grains is linked to reduced risk of non-communicable diseases as compared to people who eat lesser amounts.

Fibre rich fruits include bananas, oranges, apples, mangoes, strawberries, raspberries, while beans, legumes or darker coloured vegetables too have high-fibre content.


Furthermore, whole grain breads or nuts like almonds, pistachios or pumpkin and sunflower seeds too have a high-fibre content in them.

The findings appear in the journal The Lancet.

Observational studies and clinical trials conducted over nearly 40 years reveal the health benefits of eating at least 25g to 29g or more of dietary fibre a day, according to a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

The results suggest a 15-30 per cent decrease in all-cause and cardiovascular related mortality when comparing people who eat the highest amount of fibre to those who eat the least. Eating fibre-rich foods also reduced incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer by 16-24 per cent.

In addition, a meta-analysis of clinical trials suggested that increasing fibre intakes was associated with lower bodyweight and cholesterol, compared with lower intakes.

The study was commissioned by the World Health Organisation to inform the development of new recommendations for optimal daily fibre intake and to determine which types of carbohydrate provide the best protection against non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and weight gain.

Speaking about it, Professor Jim Mann, corresponding author at the University of Otago, New Zealand said, “Our findings provide convincing evidence for nutrition guidelines to focus on increasing dietary fibre and on replacing refined grains with whole grains. This reduces incidence risk and mortality from a broad range of important diseases.”

The study also found that diets with a low glycaemic index and low glycaemic load provided limited support for protection against type 2 diabetes and stroke only.
Foods with a low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load may also contain added sugars, saturated fats, and sodium. This may account for the links to health being less clear.

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Researchers study patterns of back pain

The Kashmir Monitor



Researchers have examined the patterns of back pain over time and patient characteristics in relation to the disability.

In addition, they have identified the extent of healthcare and medication use (including opioids) associated with different patterns.

Back pain is among the most frequently reported health problems in the world.


For the study, researchers from the University Health Network’s Krembil Research Institute in Toronto, Canada studied 12,782 participants for 16 years.

They provided data on factors including comorbidities, pain, disability, opioid and other medication use, and healthcare visits.

The results showed that almost half (45.6 per cent) of the participants reported back pain at least once.

The study included four groups of pain: persistent (18 per cent), developing (28.1 per cent), recovery (20.5 per cent), and occasional (33.4 per cent).

The findings, published in Arthritis Care and Research, showed that the persistent and developing groups tended to have more pain and disability, as well as more healthcare visits and medication use than those in the recovery and occasional trajectory groups.

In addition, the recovery trajectory group increased the use of opioids and antidepressants over time.

“The good news is that one in five people with back pain recovered. However, they continued to use opioids and antidepressants, suggesting that people recovering from back pain need ongoing monitoring,” said lead author Mayilee Canizares, postdoctoral candidate from the varsity.

The bad news is that one in five experienced persistent back pain, said Canizares.

People with back pain are a heterogeneous group that may benefit from different approaches to management rather than a traditional one size fits all approach.The distinct groups identified in the study may represent opportunities for more individualised treatment and preventative strategies, Canizares noted.

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January 2019
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