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Chronic Kidney Diseases: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment




Chronic kidney disease happens when the kidneys fail to function normally. If you have impaired kidneys, your body will not be able to filter wastes and remove excessive fluid from the body. In the recent years, health experts have witnessed an increase in chronic kidney diseases, which have accounted for 11 lakh deaths across the world. Chronic kidney disease can either get worse with time or cause damage which cannot be reversed, depending on the cause of the disease. One of the leading causes of chronic kidney disease is diabetes mellitus.

Causes of chronic kidney disease

Obesity is what causes diabetes mellitus. Other reasons which can cause chronic kidney disease include high blood pressure, kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease and excessive intake of pain killers.


If a person is born with a kidney problem, it is quite likely to lead to a chronic kidney disease in future. People with a narrowed or blocked renal artery are also likely to be prone to chronic kidney diseases. This is because renal arteries are responsible for carrying blood to the kidneys.

Symptoms of chronic kidney diseases

Symptoms of chronic kidney disease begin to show after a few months of your kidney failure. Most people do not get symptoms of chronic kidney diseases in the initial stages. Some people get symptoms until 30 years or more.

Symptoms of chronic kidney disease include urinating lesser than normal; swelling in the body or weight gain because buildup of fluid in tissues; feeling excessively tired or sleepy; not feeling hungry and weight loss without trying; feeling nauseated, troubled sleep and headaches.

Diagnosis of chronic kidney diseases

Blood and urine tests are done in order to diagnose chronic kidney diseases. Doctors measure the amount of urea and creatinine in the blood. These tests inform the doctor about how well your kidneys are functioning. The amount of nitrogen and creatinine in your blood increases in case your kidney function gets worse.

The level of creatinine in the blood will tell how far your kidneys can function. Creatinine levels are known as glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR tells at which stage is your kidney damage and helps the doctor to go ahead with the treatment accordingly.

Diagnosis of chronic kidney diseases is also done by the doctor asking you if you have history of kidney problems or if the condition runs in the family. He will also ask you about the medicines you take, both prescribed and over-the-counter.

Ultrasound tests and CT scans are done when the doctor needs to look at the picture of your kidneys. These tests help in measuring an estimate of blood flow in your kidneys, the size of your kidneys and also help in checking if the urine flow is blocked in anyway.

Some kidney diseases are diagnosed through a biopsy. A biopsy is a procedure wherein a small sample of your kidney tissue is taken to find out the cause of kidney disease.

Treatment of kidney disease

Since diabetes and high blood pressure are one of the major causes of chronic kidney diseases, dealing with them is more important. People with diabetes and high blood pressure should make sure that they exercise regularly and lose weight to control their condition.

Lifestyle changes are an important aspect of treatment of chronic kidney diseases. These changes help in slowing down kidney diseases and reduce symptoms of chronic kidney diseases. These lifestyle changes include eating a diet with the right amount of salt and protein.

People with chronic kidney disease are required to exercise regularly. They need to quit smoking and alcohol. Any medicines that a person with chronic kidney disease takes have to be done under medical supervision.

In case chronic kidney disease gets worse, it can lead to kidney failure. Kidney failures can harm your bones, heart and can even cause brain problems. Dialysis and kidney transplants are the treatments for kidney failures.

Dialysis is a process which filters your blood when your kidneys fail to do so. It helps a person with chronic kidney disease feel better and live for longer.

For a healthy person however, a kidney transplant is considered to be the best choice. But the procedure of waiting for a kidney that is suitable for your blood and tissues can take quite long. Also, people who undergo kidney transplants have to medicines for the rest of their lives. This is to prevent the body from rejecting the new kidney.



5 Foods That Will Detoxify Your Lungs And Heal Them Naturally

The Kashmir Monitor



Are you a chain smoker? Do you live in a polluted area? Our lungs are a vital organ and the most ignored organ of our body. It is through them that we breathe.

Consequently our lungs are also sucking in harmful elements from the air around us. They are exposed to harmful pollutants and microbes that get deposited from the air we inhale. For people who smoke, their healthy lungs turn black with the deposition of tar in their lungs. Regular detoxification of lungs will help in smooth functioning and help in expulsion of toxins. Thus it is important that we choose healthy foods to cleanse our lungs, so as to reduce common lung diseases and respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystic fibrosis.

Some foods which are great for good lung health are listed below:


1. Garlic: The anti-inflammatory properties along with a high level of allicin helps to fight infections and reduces inflammation. Garlic has also been considered by many as being an effective remedy in improving asthma and can help to reduce the risk of lung cancer.

2. Apples: An apple is healthy, loaded with nutrients, high energy, high fiber, low calorie food. Its flavonoids and the wide variety of vitamins, and antioxidants, particularly vitamin C, helps us to maintain a strong immune system and a healthy respiratory system. When we have healthy respiratory functions, we can fight off lung diseases and prevent them naturally.

3. Ginger: Due to its anti-inflammatory properties ginger will help to clear your lungs naturally. You can add ginger to various dishes as it is a widely used herb. Also you can add it in your morning tea.You can also use it to prepare ginger tea blended with some lemon in it. This is beneficial to remove toxins from the respiratory tract.

4. Green tea: Drink a cup of your favourite herbal green tea before going to bed to release toxins in the intestine that can lead to constipation or other stomach ailments. You should refrain from overloading your lungs with tedious work during this purification process.

5. Lentils: In order to optimize the oxygen transportation faculties of the lungs, healthy hemoglobin levels are absolutely critical. Hemoglobin is a protein molecule that is found in red blood cells and aids in transporting oxygen from the lungs to body tissue. As an added benefit, hemoglobin stimulates the internal processes that returns carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be expelled from the body. Black beans, cow peas, dried peas, lentils, red kidney beans, garbanzo beans, and soybeans are some foods containing properties that raise hemoglobin levels. Additionally, supplement beans and lentils with vitamin-C rich foods to maximize iron absorption.

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Fasting may help keep age-related diseases at bay: Study

The Kashmir Monitor



Fasting can boost the body’s metabolism and help protect against age-related diseases, a study has found. The circadian clock operates within the body and its organs as intrinsic time-keeping machinery to preserve homeostasis in response to the changing environment. While food is known to influence clocks in peripheral tissues, it was unclear, until now, how the lack of food influences clock function and ultimately affects the body.

“We discovered fasting influences the circadian clock and fasting-driven cellular responses, which together work to achieve fasting-specific temporal gene regulation,” said Paolo Sassone-Corsi, a professor at the University of California, Irvine in the US. “Skeletal muscle, for example, appears to be twice as responsive to fasting as the liver,” said Sassone-Corsi.

The research, published in the journal Cell Reports, was conducted using mice, which were subjected to 24-hour periods of fasting. While fasting, researchers noted the mice exhibited a reduction in oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and energy expenditure, all of which were completely abolished by refeeding, which parallels results observed in humans.


“The reorganisation of gene regulation by fasting could prime the genome to a more permissive state to anticipate upcoming food intake and thereby drive a new rhythmic cycle of gene expression,” he said. “In other words, fasting is able to essentially reprogram a variety of cellular responses. Therefore, optimal fasting in a timed manner would be strategic to positively affect cellular functions and ultimately benefiting health and protecting against ageing-associated diseases,” said Sassone-Corsi.

The study opens new avenues of investigation that could ultimately lead to the development of nutritional strategies to improve health in humans.

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High-fibre diet lowers risk of death, non-communicable diseases: Lancet

The Kashmir Monitor



Eating up to 30 grams of naturally-occurring dietary fibre — such as whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits — daily may prevent the risks of developing non-communicable diseases, finds a review of studies published in the journal The Lancet.

The results suggest a 15-30 per cent decrease in all-cause and cardiovascular related mortality; and reduced incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, Type-2 diabetes and colorectal cancer by 16-24 per cent.

Increasing fibre intake is associated with lower bodyweight and cholesterol, compared with lower intake or synthetic and extracted fibre.


“Our findings provide convincing evidence for nutrition guidelines to focus on increasing dietary fibre and on replacing refined grains with whole grains. This reduces incidence risk and mortality from a broad range of important diseases,” said Professor Jim Mann, from the University of Otago, New Zealand.

“Fibre-rich whole foods that require chewing and retain much of their structure in the gut increase satiety and help weight control and can favourably influence lipid and glucose levels.

“The breakdown of fibre in the large bowel by the resident bacteria has additional wide-ranging effects including protection from colorectal cancer,” Mann said.

Protection against stroke, and breast cancer also increased. Consuming 25-29 grams each day was adequate but the data suggest that higher intakes of dietary fibre could provide even greater protection.

The researchers included 185 observational studies and 58 clinical trials involving 4,635 adult participants.

The study also found that diets with a low glycaemic index and low glycaemic load provided limited support for protection against Type 2 diabetes and stroke only.

Foods with a low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load may also contain added sugars, saturated fats, and sodium.

However, high intakes might have ill-effects for people with low iron or mineral levels for whom high levels of whole grains can further reduce iron levels, the researchers noted.

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January 2019
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