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All About Tetatnus: When You Need It And Why






Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease which affects nervous system and causes painful muscle contractions in the muscles of your neck and jaw. It is often called lockjaw. The disease interferes with your ability to breathe. But, thanks to the vaccine for tetanus, there are very few cases of tetanus in the world. Nonetheless, the disease is a threat to those who have not got the vaccine or don’t get it when required. Tetanus is more common in developing countries in the world. The disease has no cure and needs to be treated until the complications are managed and the effects of toxins are resolved. Tetanus is caused by bacteria known as Clostridium tetani. Spores of the bacteria can be found in dust, soil and animal faeces. When the bacteria enter a deep flesh wound, the spores grow into bacteria which can produce tetanospasmin, a powerful toxin which can adversely impact the nervous system which controls your muscles. This toxin is capable of causing muscle stiffness and spasms, which are a major sign of tetanus. Most cases of tetanus happen only in people who have never been vaccinated or adults who haven’t been able to keep up with their 10-year booster injections. Tetanus can also be caught from a person who has it.
Symptoms of tetanus
Symptoms of tetanus begin to appear after a few days or some weeks after the tetanus bacteria entered your body through a wound. On an average, the incubation period of tetanus is around 7 to 10 days. Some common signs and symptoms of tetanus include spasms or lockjaw, difficult in swallowing, stiffness in your abdominal muscles, painful body spasms which can last for several minutes and are triggered by loud noises, light or physical touch.
Other common symptoms of tetanus include sweating, fever, high blood pressure and rapid heart rate.
Risk factors for tetanus
People who do not get tetanus vaccine or are unable to keep up to date with booster shots are more prone to risks of tetanus. If you have an injury or a wound which allows tetanus spores into the wound can also be a risk factor. Any foreign body such as a nail or splinter can increase risks of tetanus. Dental infections, infected foot ulcers, animal bites or insect bites, gunshot wounds, puncture wounds including the ones caused from body piercings, splinters, injection drugs and tattoos, surgical wounds, burns, use of drug injections and infected umbilical stumps in newborns of mothers who haven’t been immunised properly are other risks factors of tetanus.
Tetanus complications
In case a tetanus toxin has bound with your nerve endings, it is impossible to remove it from there. In order to recover completely from tetanus, you might require regrowth of nerve endings, which can take upto several months. Broken bones, blockage of lung arteries and death in severe cases are the complications of tetanus.
Extremely sever spasms can cause breakage of spine and other bones. Blood clots that have travelled from different places in the body can cause blockage in the main artery of the lungs or ones of it branches.
Death caused because of tetanus is only in rare and severe cases. Severe muscle spasms tend to interfere with your breathing. Respiratory failure as a result of muscle spasms are the leading causes of death because of tetanus. Lack of oxygen can lead to cardiac arrest which ends up in death.
Prevention of tetanus
As part of the primary vaccine series for tetanus, children are given the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. This vaccination protects from diseases like respiratory and throat infections (diphtheria), whooping cough (pertussis) and tetanus. This vaccine is given in a series of 5 shots at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months and 4 to 6 years.
Thereafter, a booster of tetanus vaccine is given in combination with booster of diphtheria vaccine (Td). Adolescents can get Tdap vaccines between ages 11 and 12, and a Td booster after every 10 years after that. In case you have not received a Tdap dose, you can substitute it with your next Td booster and continue with Td boosters in the usual way.
Talk to your doctor and stay up to date with your vaccinations.



Never ignore the common signs of A Heart Attack in Women

The Kashmir Monitor



Every person knows the common signs of Heart attack is chest pain. It’s not like how it is shown in movies where a man is shown gasping for breath, clutches his chest and falls on the ground. When it comes to real life, the symptoms of heart attack are more than just pain in the chest. Yes, chest pain is a symptom of heart attack, but there are other subtle signs of cardiovascular problems, which are important to know. As per studies, women do mostly feel chest pain when they suffer from a cardinal problem, there are few other signs you should be cautious about. If these signs are overlooked then it can even turn fatal.

The common signs of a heart attack one should not ignore in women

  1. Do you feel uncomfortable pressure in your chest?

One of the most common signs of a Heart attack in women. If you are feeling pressure and tightness around your chest, then ask for help. Pain can happen anywhere in the chest, it is not necessary to be the middle of the heart. Do not brush off the situation just because the pain is on the left side.

  1. Breathing Difficulty

Uneasiness and difficulty in breathing is another sign of heart attack in Women. If you are not able to catch your breath and move around even a little bit, then it is an indicator that something is not right with your heart.

  1. Sweating

Sweating on a sunny day or due to intense workout is normal, but if it is random then you should immediately call someone for help. Profuse and sudden sweating can be a sign of a cardiovascular problem. This sign is easily confused with night sweats or hot flashes, which is common with age Overlooking this can be dangerous for you.

  1. pain experienced in both the arms

It is not necessary that pain be experienced only in the chest or in the middle of the heart. At times it can even be on the left or right arm, or even in the upper abdomen. It is important to note that any type of pain above the waist could be due to a heart problem. The pain could be irregular or intense

  1. The most common sign Dizziness

Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in women. These signs of a heart attack are mostly confused with food poisioned or gastrointestinal issues. But if you are experiencing nausea and vomiting along with pain in the upper part of the body, then it is time immediately rush to the hospital.

  1. Exhaustion

One feels very exhausted, but just like other signs of heart attack, if you feel excessively tired than usual then you get yourself checked. You would actually feel overwhelmed and would not be able to perform any other activity. This sign is often mistaken for anxiety. If you suddenly feel fatigued and uneasy then speak to your practitioner.

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Cutting screen time may reverse sleep problems in teens

The Kashmir Monitor



Limiting exposure to blue-light emitting devices such as phones and laptops in the evening for just a week can help teenagers improve their sleep quality and reduce symptoms of fatigue, lack of concentration and bad mood, a study has found.

Recent studies have indicated that exposure to too much evening light, particularly the blue light emitted from screens on smartphones, tablets and computers can affect the brain’s clock and the production of the sleep hormone melatonin, resulting in disrupted sleep time and quality.

The lack of sleep does not just cause immediate symptoms of tiredness and poor concentration but can also increase the risk of more serious long-term health issues such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease.


Other studies have suggested that sleep deprivation related to screen time may affect children and adolescents more than adults, but no studies have fully investigated how real-life exposure is affecting sleep in adolescents at home and whether it can be reversed.

Researchers from Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience, the Amsterdam UMC and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, investigated the effects of blue light exposure on adolescents at home.

Those who had more than four hours per day of screen time had on average 30 minutes later sleep onset and wake up times than those who recorded less than one hour per day of screen time, as well as more symptoms of sleep loss.

The team conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of blocking blue light with glasses and no screen time during the evening on the sleep pattern of 25 frequent users.

Both blocking blue light with glasses and screen abstinence resulted in sleep onset and wake up times occurring 20 minutes earlier, and a reduction in reported symptoms of sleep loss in participants, after just one week.

“Adolescents increasingly spend more time on devices with screens and sleep complaints are frequent in this age group,” said Dirk Jan Stenvers from the Amsterdam UMC.

“Here we show very simply that these sleep complaints can be easily reversed by minimising evening screen use or exposure to blue light,” Stenvers said.

“Based on our data, it is likely that adolescent sleep complaints and delayed sleep onset are at least partly mediated by blue light from screens,” he said.

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Common chemicals can increase risk of metabolic disorders

The Kashmir Monitor



Do you know that your everyday exposure to everyday harmful chemicals can land you into serious trouble?

A recent study has found that people exposed to chemicals called Phthalates, increasing the risk of metabolic disorders. The study was discussed in the meeting, ‘ECE 2019’. Researchers found a correlation between levels of phthalate exposure and markers of impaired liver function, which are indicators of increased risk of obesity, diabetes and heart disease.

These findings suggest that more actions may need to be taken to reduce people’s exposure to these potentially harmful, yet commonly used chemicals. Phthalates are common additives used in manufacturing to produce plastics and they can be found in numerous everyday items including milk, bottled water, instant coffee, perfume, makeup, shampoo, toys and food packaging.


Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals has previously been implicated in causing serious harm to fertility and development, as well as increased obesity risk in rodents and people.

However, no studies have directly investigated how Phthalate exposure is associated with obesity and metabolism. In this study, Professor Milica Medi Stojanoska, one of the researchers correlated the levels of Phthalate absorbed by people with their body weight, type 2 diabetes incidence and markers of impaired liver and metabolic function.

Higher exposure to the chemical was associated with increased markers of liver damage, insulin resistance and cholesterol in people with obesity and diabetes.

Prof Stojanoska says, “Although a small association study, these findings suggest that not only do phthalates alter metabolism to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes but that they are also causing toxic damage to the liver.”

Prof Stojanoska’s research is now looking at the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on human health in adults, adolescents and babies.

“We need to inform people about the potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on their health and look at ways to minimise our contact with these harmful chemicals,” adds the professor.

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