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A growing tolerance for intolerance

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By Manini Chatterjee

The Union defence minister, Nirmala Sitharaman, held an extraordinary press conference last Friday. It had nothing to do with her weighty portfolio but was a declaration of war, all right. The ostensible target was Rahul Gandhi but it was also a thinly veiled warning to India’s minorities and secular liberals to brace for vicious attacks in the run-up to the 2019 general elections.
Sitharaman flagged a report in an Urdu newspaper which had made the outlandish claim that Rahul had described the Congress as a “Muslim party” during his interaction with a group of Muslim intellectuals on July 11 and had assured them of “course correction” after his temple visits during the Gujarat and Karnataka assembly election campaigns.
Ignoring the fact that the Congress had denied the report, Sitharaman went on a vituperative tirade, a picture of barely contained fury, almost hissing and snarling into the cameras. “The Congress has for a very long time openly done minority appeasement, now it has a reached a crescendo,” the minister said, accusing the party of “getting back to a divide India mindset” of the Partition era.
She then came out with a dire warning. “I would also like to say that it will be the Congress’s responsibility if we see incidents of communal disharmony between now and 2019.”
Coming from one of the senior-most ministers in the cabinet, that was an astounding remark. A fundamental responsibility of any government is to ensure law and order, and safeguard social harmony. And the Bharatiya Janata Party today rules not just at the Centre but in a majority of the states. Yet, here was a minister meting out a bald threat to minorities, and making it clear that communal polarization was on the anvil. The Congress was just a stand-in for all minorities and liberals; its so-called “appeasement” just a ruse to send a message to the troll armies and Hindutva cadres to go for the kill.
In normal times, such incendiary remarks would have invited a rebuke or at least a gentle reprimand from more responsible members of the party and the government. But we live in abnormal times and it was clear to every listener that Nirmala Sitharaman was reading out from a text that had been scripted by her bosses as part of a well-crafted electoral and ideological strategy.
That was proved – if proof was necessary – the very next day when the prime minister himself repeated the allegation that Rahul Gandhi had termed the Congress a Muslim party. After Nirmala Sitharaman’s press conference, the historian, S. Irfan Habib – who had attended the meeting with Rahul – had categorically denied the charge. “It seems to have malicious intent, no such issue came up at all,” Habib tweeted.
But facts have seldom come in the way of Narendra Modi’s propaganda. And so, addressing a rally in Azamgarh on July 14, the prime minister – in the mocking tone that he has honed into a fine art – asked Rahul to clarify whether the Congress was a party of “Muslim men only” and went on to cast himself as a champion of Muslim women since his government is pushing the legislation against instant triple talaq.
The alacrity with which the defence minister and the prime minister seized upon a fallacious news report to dub the Congress a “Muslim party” makes the BJP’s game plan obvious. For all the talk of “development”, the party has clearly decided to bank on communal polarization as the leitmotif of its general election campaign.
This was evident even before Rahul Gandhi met Muslim intellectuals and was pilloried for it – never mind that he has been meeting different social and economic groups regularly, or that Narendra Modi, too, has met groups of Muslim clerics more than once since becoming prime minister.
Shashi Tharoor’s comment that India was in the danger of becoming a “Hindu Pakistan” evoked the same kind of manufactured outrage that Rahul’s meeting did. Speaking at a function in Kerala on July 11, Tharoor said, “If they (BJP) win a repeat in the Lok Sabha, our democratic Constitution as we understand it will not survive, as they will have all the elements they need to tear apart the Constitution and write a new one. That new one will be the one which will enshrine the principles of Hindu rashtra. That will remove equality for the minorities that will create a Hindu Pakistan…”
This was not the first time that Tharoor had warned of India turning into a “Hindu Pakistan”. The CPI(M) general-secretary, Sitaram Yechury, too, had used the expression during a landmark debate in Parliament a year ago. But with the country now slipping into election mode, BJP spokespersons and friendly “nationalist” television channels went on an overdrive condemning Tharoor and the Congress for “insulting” India by comparing it to Pakistan.
Yet, to view the BJP’s response merely as an electoral tactic would be misplaced. The denial of diversity and tolerance is ingrained in its ideological agenda.
The use of the term “Hindu Pakistan”, arguably, is equally inappropriate. For one, by demonizing Pakistan and valorising the “civilizational values” of India, it reinforces – unwittingly or not – the deep biases against Islam and its adherents, just as much as it shores up the myth (beloved of upper caste liberals) of “intrinsic” Hindu tolerance.
Second, it places far too much focus on the majority-minority binary. Tharoor, for instance, while defending his speech with a Facebook post, wrote: “Pakistan was created as a state with a dominant religion that discriminates against its minorities and denies them equal rights. India never accepted the logic…”
While Pakistan’s minuscule minorities have suffered at the hands of a theocratic state, the truth is that the biggest victims of the rule of the mullah-military combine, and the pervasive terrorism it has spawned, have been ordinary citizens who are overwhelmingly Muslim.
In India too, the rise of hate and bigotry – although the targets are designated “others” – threatens to consume us all. Therefore, to remain bound to the ‘India versus Pakistan”, “Hindu versus Muslim” discourse can make us blind to the insidious ways in which our essential and shared humanity is being eroded day by day.
A chilling article in The Irish Times by columnist, Fintan O’Toole that has been widely read around the world brings that home. Entitled “Trial runs for fascism are in full flow”, it points out that “one of the basic tools of fascism is the rigging of elections”, and the second is “the generation of tribal identities, the division of society into mutually exclusive polarities.” The third is the need of “a propaganda machine so effective that it creates for its followers a universe of ‘alternative facts’ impervious to unwanted realities.”
“But when you’ve done all this,” writes O’Toole, “there is a crucial next step, usually the trickiest of all.” And what is that? “You have to undermine moral boundaries, inure people to the acceptance of acts of extreme cruelty. Like hounds, people have to be blooded. They have to be given the taste for savagery.” This is done by “building up the sense of threat from a despised out-group. This allows the members of that group to be dehumanised. Once that has been achieved, you can gradually up the ante, working through the stages from breaking windows to extermination.”
O’Toole goes on to cite examples from far right offensives in Europe and America – the demonization and victimization of migrants and refugees – as instances of “test marketing” the “pre-fascist agenda”.
In India (which he does not mention) the “out-group” is within – and therefore, the efforts to divide, so much more twisted and corrosive. The Muslims may be the most visible target, but hate knows no boundaries – like noxious air, like raging fire, it contaminates and scorches the victor as much as the victim.
And every time a minister garlands members of a lynch mob, every time a news anchor bays for the blood of an “anti-national’, every time a prime minister uses ‘alternative facts’ to conjure a polarizing narrative, we become “blooded” and acquire “a taste for savagery”. The threshold of our tolerance for intolerance keeps expanding.
Forget Hindu Pakistan. It is the prospect of becoming a ‘Hatistan’ that we must fear and resist.

 

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Opinion

War or peace?

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By Dr Akmal Hussain

Foreign Minister Shah Mahmud Qureshi on Sunday, April 7, in a press briefing in Multan, announced that the government had “reliable” information that India was planning another attack on Pakistan. He revealed that during a meeting of the Indian Cabinet Committee on Security, the three service chiefs had indicated that they were ready with plans of multiple strikes against Pakistan across a wide front and were awaiting a “political nod”, which was duly given by PM Modi during the meeting.
After the political boomerang of the failed Balakot strike, simple statistical theory would suggest to the military mind that the larger the number of strikes next time the higher the probability of at least one succeeding. The chances of partial success would increase if the air attack is across a wide front: the defending air force would have to spread itself thin and so the number of intercepting aircraft that could be fielded against any one group of attackers would be reduced.
Such a military adventure by India would not simply be a repeat strike after Balakot. It would be a precipitous escalation, fraught with the risk of full-scale conventional war that could quickly lead to a catastrophic nuclear exchange. When India suffered a setback in the Balakot engagement, they reportedly readied themselves for a missile strike against three Pakistani cities on the night of February 27.
There is no technology in existence that can determine whether or not incoming missiles have a nuclear payload. So Pakistan’s declaration that they would launch triple the number of missiles in retaliation, as soon as Indian missiles left their launch pads, carried the grim possibility of a nuclear war in the Subcontinent. If we had come so close to Armageddon soon after even a single abortive strike, imagine how much greater would be the risk of escalation to the nuclear level during a full-scale conventional war.
At present, and in the foreseeable future, two aspects of the structure of the India-Pakistan relationship create a hair trigger that can quickly and repeatedly bring the two countries to flashpoint. First, a popular freedom movement in Kashmir that, despite their protracted coercion, Indian security forces have been unable to suppress. It has instead produced a pantheon of martyrs and a new generation of militant youths willing to sacrifice themselves for freedom. Under these circumstances the internal dynamics of the Kashmiri movement can generate acts of violent rebellion against Indian troops at any time.
Second, on the other side of the border for many years non-state groups of militant extremists who have off and on received patronage continue to exist. The toxic mix of these two elements creates an environment in which spectacular acts of violence by Kashmiri youth could be blamed on “Pakistan-based terrorists” by India. This could intensify tensions, precipitating another military conflict. The past cannot be taken as a guide to say how it will end, whether in peace or nuclear war.
Given the firepower of modern conventional weaponry, significant loss of territory can occur during the initial onslaught that could escalate to the use of battlefield nuclear weapons. Once nuclear weapons are used on enemy troops, all-out nuclear war would follow. The recent history of India-Pakistan military conflict however has shown that even before a full-scale conventional war, a limited, localised battle can bring the two sides to the nuclear precipice.
For example, during the Kargil conflict in 1999 when the then prime minister Nawaz Sharif flew to Washington to ask the then US president Clinton to help end the conflict, he was shown satellite pictures of nuclear weapons being loaded onto F16s as evidence for a shocked PM of how close the two countries were to a nuclear war. Then again during the first two days of the February 2019 conflict involving limited Air Force engagements, nuclear missiles were reportedly readied on the night of February 27 for use by both sides.
So far these confrontations have induced timely intercession by the international community and peoples of the Subcontinent have survived by the skin of their teeth. But what a future confrontation will bring, whether we live or die in a nuclear war is inherently uncertain. Its probability cannot be estimated.
Some take comfort in the fact that seven confrontations in the past did not result in full-scale war as international pressure to defuse tensions worked. However, this 100 percent success in preventing war in the past cannot be used as a basis for saying it will not occur the next time around. This is because in society as much as in the relationship between states the averages of the past do not necessarily hold into the future. This is unlike natural phenomena where averages of the past as expressed in natural laws do hold into the future.
For example, take the law of gravity: if you had dropped an object and it fell to the ground yesterday, there is a high probability that it would fall again if you dropped it tomorrow. But in society, probability estimates which are essentially based on projecting the past into the future are not possible in principle. The pattern of social phenomena and human behaviour observed in the past can in the future be shattered by unique events or a combination of unique events.
As the preceding discussion argues, even a limited conventional conflict following a terrorist incident can quickly escalate to the nuclear threshold. It is vital, therefore, for the two countries supported by the world community to address the explosive structure of a situation that leads to repeated military confrontation.
Millions of citizens in both countries are mired in poverty, illiteracy and disease. Thousands of children are dying at birth every day; of those who survive birth, thousands die before they are five years old. Of the children who live beyond five years, millions are suffering from malnutrition, their bodies stunted, their brains dulled. Millions of children roam the streets and alleys, deprived of quality education, abandoned by society and state and living without hope. Instead of halting this massacre of innocents together, the two states are marching in lockstep to a nuclear catastrophe.
It is time for the leaderships of both India and Pakistan to reflect on the irrationality and inhumanity of using proxy wars or ‘surgical strikes’ as a means of achieving national security. The power of a nation lies not in following the course of mutual annihilation but pursuing the path of peace for the welfare of its citizens. The leaderships of the two countries should dip their cupped hands into their shared civilisational well-springs. Imbibe the sense of compassion and human solidarity to care for our children rather than killing them.

 
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Rubbing salt on the wounds:

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By Aleem Faizee

Another assault on the people of Malegaon – this is how a shopkeeper in Malegaon reacted to the news of the BJP fielding Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur from Bhopal against Congress’ Digvijaya Singh in this Lok Sabha election.
It’s like rubbing salt on our wounds, another Malegaon resident said.
For the people in Malegaon, the announcement of Pragya Thakur’s candidature has brought back the ghastly memories of 29 September 2008, when the city was rocked by a bomb blast. Thakur is facing trial in the case.
On the night of the blast, it was about 9.40 pm and people were about to finish Salaat-ut-Taraweeh – special night prayers offered during the month of Ramadan – when they heard a loud sound of explosion. At first, they thought it could be a cylinder blast accident. But it soon emerged that it was a bomb blast.
The blast spot was just metres away from the Ladies Fashion Market at Anjuman Chowk where a huge crowd of women and children were busy shopping for Eid al Fitr. There was chaos near Bhikku Chowk – the site of the blast. People carried the bleeding victims, more than a hundred, to hospitals using whatever means they could find.
The blast claimed six lives. One of them was 5-year-old Farheen Shaikh who was out to buy some snacks and was on her way back home to have Ramadan dinner with her grandmother.
Among the injured was Abdullah Jamaluddin Ansari of Shakeel Transport. The 75-year-old man, during initial investigation, had said he had noticed the LML Freedom motorcycle, which was later traced to Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur and led to her arrest, parked in front of his office since afternoon that day. He had also informed the police chowki, a stone’s throw away from the blast site, but claimed that no action was taken.
Javed Ansari, owner of a photocopier shop, was also injured in the Malegaon blast. It took him over three years to recover and resume work.
But for these blast victims, life has never been the same since that September night.
While Javed Ansari and the family of Farheen Shaikh left the locality after the blast, Shakeel Transport’s Abdullah Ansari died last year. Following the blast, Ansari often looked at the wall clock in his shop, which had stopped working at 9.37 pm – the time of the blast – and waited for justice.
One doesn’t know how he would have reacted to the news of Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur joining the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and contesting the Lok Sabha election.
By fielding Sadhvi Pragya, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) wants people to believe that she and other accused arrested in various blast cases were ‘framed in fabricated cases’ and that ‘saffron terror’ is a myth.
But while doing so the, BJP has undermined the fact that Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur still remains a key accused in the 2008 Malegaon blast case. As per court papers, the first evidence that led to her arrest was the LML Freedom motorcycle that was registered in her name and was used to plant the bomb. There are also some audio tapes and visuals too. Based on these evidences, the Bombay trial court judge had observed that there was enough ground to establish Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur’s role in the blast.
Ironically, while nominating Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur as the party candidate, the BJP did not think about the kind of message this would send to all the world leaders with whom Narendra Modi has often taken up the issue of terrorism.
The people of Malegaon, who had been hearing about the pressure on some officers and public prosecutor Rohini Salian ‘to go soft’ in the case, have almost lost all hope of getting justice. Wife of Mumbai ATS chief Hemant Karkare – the officer who initially investigated the case – had turned down then-Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi’s monetary compensation after 26/11 attacks.
Therefore, the BJP’s decision to field Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur in this election is neither shocking nor surprising for most people in Malegaon. But it is painful, especially for the blast victims and their families.

 
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Majboot Sarkars Overrated?

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By Amir

Prior to the 1990s, coalition governments in Indian politics were considered to be an aberration and not particularly desirable. The lack of coalitions in India was clearly tied to the one-party preponderance of the Congress. So, when the party sensed defeat in the 1989 Lok Sabha election, it tried to remind voters of how shambolic the 1977 Janata government had been.
The VP Singh-led National Front government formed in 1989 was perhaps the strangest political entity that people had witnessed in Indian politics. Propped up by the Left parties on one side, and the right-wing BJP that provided support with its 86 seats on the other – the government proved to be short lived.
The grand old party then supported the Chandrashekhar Singh government for four months, after which it decided to withdraw support and elections in 1991 brought back a Congress-led coalition government in the country. With that, the era of coalition politics was well and truly upon us.
Coalition governments were the new normal in Indian politics and would continue to be so until 2014, when the Narendra Modi-led government became the first in three decades since 1984, to win a clear majority.
In 1996, there was a short-lived Vajpayee-led BJP government for 13 days, followed by the rather soporific one led by HD Deve Gowda that lasted until 1997. After that, IK Gujral led the United Front coalition government that lasted from April 1997 to March 1998.
By then, the political scenario of the country was beginning to look a bit like a game of musical chairs. However, things stabilised with Atal Bihari Vajpayee returning in 1998, hanging on for a year and then getting re-elected in 1999 to finally last a whole term.
After that, with a full decade of the Congress led United Progressive Alliance leading the way, Indian politics developed a version of the two party system, rather, a two coalition system. Numerous political parties have coalesced around BJP and the Congress in the form of the National Democratic Alliance and the United Progressive Alliance, respectively.
Congress governments in coalition have brought about some of the most momentous and far-reaching changes. It was the Narasimha Rao-led government that introduced the economic reforms, which for better or worse, changed the country tremendously.
One simple indicator of the worth of coalitions is the fact that many thought that the UPA-I government was too hobbled by the presence of the Left, as it was a hindrance to the economic reforms associated with Congress governments since 1991.
The withdrawal of Left support, followed by the more emphatic victory that led to UPA-II in 2009, was supposed to bring in a more decisive and unfettered government. Yet, it is the UPA-I government that is remembered for the succession of rights-based legislation it introduced, while UPA II has come to be associated with crony capitalism.
Similarly, the NDA-I government of Vajpayee, with all of its coalition pulls and pressures ensured two things. First, the core and often contentious BJP issues, which are Article 370, Babri Masjid and Uniform Civil Code, were relegated to the back-burner.
Second, the Vajpayee-led BJP government could well and truly be said to have a fringe and a centre, with the fringe remaining where any fringe should belong.
However, the ruling BJP government of the day has once again brought the core contentious issues to the forefront. It has also ensured that the fringe encompasses the party uniformly, leaving no hint of nuance or differentiation.
What this suggests is that weaker coalitions may actually perform better. More importantly, coalitions are able to more naturally weave in the vital regional parties that act as breakwaters in the path of potentially elective despotism.
Are majority governments over-rated?
What have supposedly strong and stable majority governments been able to do? Have they taken decisive measures or brought about ‘big-ticket economic reforms’, untroubled by the petty pulls of coalition partners?
Take the 1984 Rajiv Gandhi government with its mammoth majority of above 400 hundred seats. In less than two years, it started playing communally divisive politics around the Babri Masjid and Shah Bano issues.
The Congress thought it was being cleverly even handed by dealing out both majority and minority communal cards. The drift in the Rajiv Gandhi government could be sensed right in the middle of its term when it lost badly in the Haryana assembly elections of 1987. It lost the hugely symbolic Allahabad by-election in 1988 to V.P. Singh, and the rest we are prone to saying, is history.
The question then is this: Could the supposed strength and stability provided by majority governments be overrated? What has the Modi government achieved on the back of its huge mandate? Has it squandered that majority much like the Rajiv Gandhi led government of 1984-89? Can Modi return to power? This has been a bit of a see-saw question.
When Modi’s government came to power with a huge landslide, or ‘tsunami’ if you will, conventional wisdom was that he was here to stay for at least two terms. The UP assembly elections in 2017 seemed to confirm this. After that, it has been more of a will he/won’t he guessing game. The jury is well and truly out on this one.

 
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