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Women smokers at greater heart attack risk

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Women smokers, especially those aged under 50, are at a significantly higher risk of a major heart attack than their male counterparts, according to research.

Heart disease is the number one cause of death for women and men worldwide, and acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is among the most life-threatening forms of heart disease.

STEMI is sometimes called a major heart attack and is caused by a complete blockage of one of the main coronary arteries.

 

The research, led by Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with the University of Sheffield, was conducted to assess smoking as an independent risk factor for STEMI and determine the differences in risk between age groups and genders.

The researchers found that smoking increases STEMI risk in all patients, regardless of age or gender, but the risk is higher in females compared to males of all ages.

The largest relative risk difference between men and women smokers was in the 50-64 years old group, but the highest risk increase in both genders was in the 18-49 years group — the youngest group, the research found.

Female smokers in this age group had a greater than 13 times higher risk of STEMI compared to their non-smoking female contemporaries. Young male smokers had 8.6 times increased risk.

The findings are the first to shed new light on the striking risk impact that smoking has in provoking major heart attacks, especially in younger and female smokers. Although risk has been known to be present for many years, its magnitude was unclear and undefined.

Researchers also found that it was possible to substantially reverse the risk by quitting smoking.

“Our study found that smoking cessation, regardless of age or gender, reduces STEMI risk to that of a never smoker, possibly within a month,” said Ever Grech from the University of Sheffield’s Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease and consultant interventional cardiologist at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

“Patients who smoke merit encouragement to give up their habit, and this study adds quantitative evidence to the massive benefits of doing so,” Grech said.

For the first time, this study provides a numerical hazard which specifically focuses on the cardiac risks of smoking in a way that is much easier to understand, Grech said.

“I hope this will not only correct the perception in young smokers that heart attack risks arise much later in life, but also publicise the real dangers of smoking in a contemporary population,” Grech added.

The study was published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology which ranks among the top cardiovascular journals in the world for its scientific impac


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Health

Beware! These Daily Habits Can Ruin Your Hair

The Kashmir Monitor

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Flawless hair is a dream of every girl. Perfect hair can complement your look and make you look perfect in no time. You might have tried multiple shampoos and hair care products to maintain your hair health. But there are certain habits which can unknowingly ruin your hair quality as well as quantity. Hair fall is the most common and noticeable consequence of these bad habits. So, from today do not spend a huge amount of money at the salon to take care of your hair. All you need to do is give up these bad habits to keep your hair healthy. You can also prevent hair fall by avoiding these habits.

Worst habits for hair

  1. Over styling

Styling might be a compulsory part of your daily routine to look perfect all the time. But it is one of the worst habits which can ruin your hair. Use of flat irons, curlers or blow dryers can promote hair fall and also make your hair dry and lifeless. It can also promote hair fall.

 
  1. Poor diet

Not just your overall health but your hair also requires the optimum amount of nutrients as well. You must ensure that you consume essential vitamins and minerals to keep your hair strong. Intake of proper diet will make your hair strong, lustrous and thick. Vitamin E is extremely beneficial for your hair. Add foods like almonds, amla, fresh fruits and vegetables.

  1. Frequent shampooing

Overuse of shampoo can also destroy your hair quality. Frequent shampooing can make your hair dry and brittle. Try not to wash your hair more than thrice a week. You should also choose the appropriate shampoo for your hair type.

  1. Brushing your hair the wrong way

Along with the right brush, you need to make sure that you brush your hair the right way. You should start with dividing your hair into two-four sections. Later brush your hair from bottom to top gently. Another tip which will help you promote hair health is- never comb wet hair. The moisture makes the hair follicles weak. So if you comb your hair wet, the stress of the cob breaks the hair easily.

  1. Poor iron intake

Iron is an essential nutrient required for healthy hair. Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of hair fall which people usually ignore. Iron promotes hemoglobin productions in the blood. Hemoglobin promotes hair growth and repairs the cells of the scalp. You can add food sources like leafy vegetables, tofu, beans, lentil, cashew or whole grains to your diet.

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Health

Alcohol causes significant harm to those other than the drinker: Study

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People who are in close proximity or connection with alcoholics can experience harm because of their drinking, according to a study led by an Indian-origin scientist.


According to the research, published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, an estimated 53 million adults in the US experienced harm because of someone else’s drinking in the last 12 months.

Researchers led by Madhabika B Nayak of the Alcohol Research Group in the US analysed data of 8,750 adults who answered questions from two databases in 2015 — the National Alcohol’s Harm to Others Survey and the National Alcohol Survey.

 

They found that some 21 per cent of women and 23 per cent of men experienced harm because of someone else’s drinking.

These harms included threats or harassment, vandalism, physical aggression, harms related to driving, or financial or family problems, according to the study.

The specific types of harm experienced differed by gender. Women were more likely to report financial and family problems, whereas ruined property, vandalism, and physical aggression were more likely to be reported by men.

There is “considerable risk for women from heavy, often male, drinkers in the household and, for men, from drinkers outside their family,” the researchers said.


Additional factors, including age and the person’s own drinking, were also important.

People below 25 had a higher risk of experiencing harm from someone else’s drinking. Further, almost half of men and women who themselves were heavy drinkers said they had been harmed by someone else’s drinking, the study stated.

Even people who drank but not heavily were at two to three times the risk of harassment, threats, and driving-related harm compared with abstainers.

Heavy drinking was defined as drinking five or more drinks at a time for men or four or more drinks for women at least monthly.

“Control policies, such as alcohol pricing, taxation, reduced availability, and restricting advertising, may be the most effective ways to reduce not only alcohol consumption but also alcohol’s harm to persons other than the drinker,” Nayak said.

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Health

Ditch the difficult diet for healthy living

The Kashmir Monitor

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Fitness is very important. But any drastic change you make in your lifestyle will not be sustainable.

According to celebrity nutritionist Pooja Makhija, it is important to give up a difficult eating pattern as a difficult diet will not help.

“If you need to make permanent change, small tweaks will help you attain the goal. Only small tweaks and lifestyle hack will actually show the change. Keeping in mind the basic diet and healthy eating habits will help. Eating less doesn’t help but eating right does,” added Makhija, who came in support of the anthology “Healthy Binge” which will air in June on Sony BBC Earth.

 

She has shared some basic fitness tips:

  • Never eat large meals in large gaps. Eat every 2 hours and in small quantities.
  • Don’t do extreme physical activity. Do timely exercise and periodically.
  • Never compromise on eating as it differs from person to person. The quality of the food is extremely important but the quantity is not.
  • Consume water. Eating food is important but ignoring water will ruin all the efforts. Having water time to time is very important for the proper working of your body.
  • Having a balanced diet is extremely important. Don’t go with trends but learn to eat balanced food that will help in the long run.

At the moment, she is working on her third book which “describes what to eat and what not to because a millennial should know their diet at very early stage”.

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