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THE COMPLEX MR BHUTTO

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By Ammar Ali Qureshi

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, at the country’s helm for more than six and a half years, was a transformative figure in Pakistan’s history. Romanticised and demonised in equal measure, even decades after his death, he remains — with the sole exception of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah — arguably the most popular and charismatic, albeit also the most controversial and divisive, politician in the country. His dramatic rise and tragic fall, according to Shamim Ahmad’s balanced and thought-provoking book Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: The Psychodynamics of His Rise and Fall, can be explained best by his complex psychological personality.

Ahmad is a retired senior civil servant with a degree in psychology and interest in literature and is the author of the interesting and informative book Torment and Creativity: A Psychoanalytic Study of Literature and Literati that profiles famous literary figures from the East and West.

 

Analyst Eqbal Ahmad explained the paradox of Bhutto and his enduring mystique quite well: “Z.A. Bhutto, the dynasty’s founder, was a feudal chief from Sindh, where serfs are still incarcerated in their lords’ private prisons. Yet millions of disinherited peasants and workers saw him as a defender of their rights. He was an authoritarian figure whose formative years in politics were spent in the service of a military dictator. Yet he rose to power as a champion of democracy. He moved the multitude with an extraordinary repertoire of patriotic gestures and populist rhetoric. Yet he contributed significantly to Pakistan’s defeat and dismemberment. He moulded the army and bureaucracy to serve as instruments of his personal power, but fell victim to his creations. His failure to fulfil his promises turned large numbers against him. But from his incarceration, trial and execution by a hated military dictator rose the legend of a hero and martyr. When Benazir inherited his mantle, an unlikely dynasty was born.”

Brilliant, erudite, articulate, indefatigable and charismatic, Bhutto had a razor-sharp mind, photographic memory, sense of history and a wonderful political antenna. He studied at Berkeley and Oxford before training as a barrister in London. Along with his political rival Mumtaz Daultana, he possessed the best personal library in the country and was very well-read. He wrote 18 books or monographs during his life — he was hanged at the age of 51— more than any politician in Pakistan’s history.

Bhutto was extremely energetic and worked 18 hours a day in office as he told the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci. Polygamous — he had three wives — and known for his love affairs, in his interview with Fallaci he defended himself against the charge of philandering by saying that a politician has to be a romantic.

Although Gen Yahya Khan and the military junta were mainly responsible for the military operation in East Pakistan and the 1971 war with India that led to the breaking up of Pakistan, Bhutto’s role in the East Pakistan crisis, by refusing to accept the results of the 1970 elections, was highly discreditable. Once sworn into power, in his inaugural speech he resolved to pick up the pieces and build a new Pakistan.

His monumental achievements include promulgating the 1973 Constitution, the signing of the Simla Accord with India, hosting the Islamic Summit in Lahore in 1974, starting the nuclear program, re-orienting Pakistan’s foreign policy towards China and the Muslim world, introducing land and labour reforms and implementing civil service reforms. He also facilitated the export of Pakistani labour to the Gulf countries after the 1973 oil boom, changed the consciousness of the working class and promoted art, literature and culture by setting up institutions such as the Pakistan National Council of Arts and the Academy of Letters etc.

His mistakes and missteps, both deleterious and costly, were nationalising the economy, banning the National Awami Party and incarcerating opposition leaders, dismissing the elected government in Balochistan and launching military operations, amending the Constitution repeatedly and whimsically with the help of a rubber-stamp parliament, appeasing the religious right by accepting their demands such as declaring Ahmadis non-Muslim etc, forming the Federal Security Force (which acted like a goon-squad, roughing up Bhutto’s senior colleagues and was also accused of carrying out assassinations of political opponents), neglecting the party machine and mistreating old comrades and holding early elections in 1977 which were not considered free and fair.

French scholar Christophe Jaffrelot aptly summed up Bhutto’s contradictions and their consequences: “Less a democrat than a populist, more an authoritarian than a parliamentarian, more a centraliser than a federalist, and as much a socialist as a product of his social background, he turned his back on parts of his platform — and thus on the middle and working classes that supplied much of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) leadership — to co-opt the landowning elite. Most of all, having little respect for basic freedoms, including that of the press, he denied Pakistan free elections in 1977, giving the army, already reinvigorated by military operations in Balochistan, the arguments it was waiting for.”

Bhutto, the author argues, developed a sense of insecurity, anxiety and even inferiority because of the déclassé status conferred on his beloved mother by the feudal milieu … it inculcated in him hubris, megalomania and arrogance, which resulted in paranoia, persecution mania and a compulsion to humiliate others.

Bhutto was the most powerful civilian ruler, initially as president and later as prime minister, in Pakistan’s history. Within months of assuming power, he dismissed Gul Hassan Khan and Rahim Khan — the army and air chiefs respectively. Gen Tikka Khan, known for his ruthless crackdown in East Pakistan, was selected as the next army chief and is now remembered as the most subservient of all army chiefs in Pakistan’s history.

Disregarding all advice, after Gen Tikka’s retirement Bhutto promoted Ziaul Haq, a junior general of fawning behaviour, as the next army chief. Gen Zia had all the disqualifications for that senior appointment except one: flattery and sycophancy. It turned out to be a fatal mistake as Gen Zia launched a coup against Bhutto in July 1977, following disputed elections and protests by the opposition. After the coup, Gen Zia jailed Bhutto, who was subsequently hanged in 1979 following a guilty verdict by the court in a murder case, but the verdict is generally regarded as judicial murder.

Bhutto, according to Ahmad, exhibited a classic split personality which can be ascribed to his parents’ marriage: his father was a landed Sindhi aristocrat who fell in love with a Hindu dancing girl. After converting to Islam, she became his second wife, but was not accepted by his family. The humiliation and rejection his mother faced in the Bhutto household left deep scars on young Bhutto’s psyche. He imbibed egalitarianism and empathy for the downtrodden from his mother and inherited the arrogance of a feudal from his father.

Bhutto, the author argues, developed a sense of insecurity, anxiety and even inferiority because of the déclassé status conferred on his beloved mother by the feudal milieu. (A flaw in Ahmad’s book is the scant information about Bhutto’s mother whose tribulations were the source of Bhutto’s own fatal flaws.) On the one hand, these attributes spurred him to work harder and strive for perfection and superiority as he tried to redress the deficiency of his birth. On the other hand, it inculcated in him hubris, megalomania and arrogance, which resulted in paranoia, persecution mania and a compulsion to humiliate others — especially those who were well-born — when he was in power. Both his brilliant and stellar achievements and his weaknesses should be viewed in the light of his psychological make-up.

Ahmad also finds signs of Bhutto suffering from the Phaeton Complex — emotional pain from a lack of attention from a parent, in this case his father — and maniac depression/bipolar disorder. His Phaeton Complex explains his mercurial temperament, his sense of insecurity and an urge to succeed and prove himself. His refusal to accept the second position in a united Pakistan under Sheikh Mujibur Rahman after the 1970 elections can also be attributed to this complex. A number of highly successful and great leaders in world history — such as Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill and Abraham Lincoln etc — are known to have suffered from bipolar disorder, exhibiting qualities of empathy, resilience, realism and creativity in addition to many symptoms contrary to these values.

In a provocative chapter, Ahmad, a former chairman of the Central Board of Revenue, also posits that, contrary to popular opinion, economic performance under Bhutto (growth rate of 4.8 per cent) was not that poor and was close to the average growth rate of five per cent in Pakistan’s 70 years’ history. Bhutto achieved this despite the loss of East Pakistan (both market and essential foreign exchange earnings), the nationalisation of the economy, quadrupling of international oil prices, bad crops and floods during his tenure. More importantly, he laid the foundations of heavy industry in Pakistan and his facilitation of manpower export to the Gulf countries benefited the economy in subsequent decades.

Using psychoanalytical theories and tools to explain the contributions and contradictions of his subject, Ahmad pens a balanced and psychologically plausible portrait of Bhutto. He notes that Napoleon Bonaparte was Bhutto’s all-time favourite hero and, in an insightful chapter, the author analyses Bonaparte and Bhutto’s other heroes such as Mao Zedong, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Mazzini, Count di Cavour, Chou En Lai, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Joseph Stalin, Alexander, Hannibal and Genghis Khan, examining how, like his heroes, Bhutto craved conquest and absolute power and demanded docility from everyone around him, brooking no criticism or disobedience.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: The Psychodynamics of
His Rise and Fall
By Shamim Ahmad
Paramount, Karachi
ISBN: 978-9696375432
284pp.


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Opinion

Theology of Presence

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Amir Suhail Wani

“O you who believe! Remember Allah With much remembrance”: Al Quran

To believe is to be in a state of presence. Presence, though not the climax, but is, one of the most cherished states and authentic manifestations of belief. To let God stay far away in the realm of abstraction and beyond-ness not only dilutes the spirit of worship, but it brings under scrutiny the very notion of belief. Religion, in its finest form, aims at invoking in man the spirit of presence, so that the believer may feel and experience the himself in presence of divine and may thus be able to envision a living and existential relationship with his creator and his object of devotion. Religion, even in its basic etymological connotation invokes the sense of “connectedness and attachment” with the object of devotion. It is in the very essence of man that he wants to be greater than what he is and when submitting before the divine, the individual, finite and subjective ego undergoes an existential, psychological and spiritual transformation of unique nature which expands its contours beyond those of physical perimeters. In any act of worship, the subject envisages the object of devotion as infinite and it not only pays homage to that infinite by bowing to it, but it very much desires to expand its own finitude under the radiance of that eternal infinite. This is what is meant by the philosophical benediction that “make me Thou, not an it”.

 

This human urge of finding means of self expansion by submitting before the divine is the greatest expression of human will and self sacrifice. But this spirit is rendered meaningless and antithetical when religion, in its state of decline, reduces to mere theology. In this reductionism, God remains no longer a living reality in the life of believer. He is rather replaced by a set of axioms and statements which fail to stimulate and satisfy the deepest spiritual yearnings of man and this deepest spiritual yearning is nothing but an aspiration to come in living contact with the divine and transcendental. Islam and for that matter most of the religions strongly condemn the deistic notions about God for it leaves absolutely no scope for religious indoctrination and creates an unimaginable void in the realm of Transcendence. It is in response to nuances like these that the notion of presence assumes multifold importance. It is not only prayer but our entire life that demands, by virtue of its spiritual dimension, that we live perpetually under the spell of divine. Thus religions teach us not merely to pray and thus make prayer a part of our life, but they come to turn our entire life into a sort of prayer. This transformation of life itself into prayer is what has best been embodied by Islamic teachings which reiterate time and again that all acts shall be done according to the law/s prescribed by God and at the beginning and end of each of our activity, the name of God shall be invoked. Not only this, the orations we recite at various instances from entering a washroom to starting our prayer are nothing but a beautiful way of making God a perpetual and living presence in our lives. None of our activities shall be divorced from Transcendent and while we are bodily constantly engaged in acts of world and matter, our heads, hearts and souls shall be perpetually turned to the divine. This act of remembering God in world of forgetting paves the way for “discovering God through material representations”. The highest form of this discovery is prayer and within prayer itself it is dua that marks the height of living relationship between God and believer. The purpose of prayer, as has been narrowly appropriated lately is not merely to make God change his mind and to bring our naive desires to fruition. Prayer is in fact the testimony of our living and real time relationship of servitude and dependency on God. Thus when God asserts “If My servants ask you regarding Me, I am indeed Near. I answer the call of those who call upon Me when they call. So let them answer My call and let them believe in believe in Me–in order that they be truly guided.”, he makes us understand in most emphatic and explicit way that he is very much existentially related to us and responds to our prayers. This response to prayer shall not be seen as the fulfilment of our prayers in material realm (which is true on its own), but it shall invoke in us the existential quest and inspire us to awaken our slumbering spiritual sensibility so that we may truly feel that God is indeed responding to us as our creator and as an object truly worthy of our devotion and worship.

This notion of presence has been subjected to double irony. The religious centric people lost sight of this appeal and dedicated their energies in confining and codifying God in their formulae of logical atomism. They rigidly tried to fix God in their self made definitions made out of untenable language as if trying to fit a square peg in a round hole. While as the role of this intellectual cum theological process can’t be belittled, but their overemphasis on making God comply to their abstractions and creating an unsurpassable chasm between the creator and creation surely set them on too rigid a path. The aftermath of this theorization of God not only created uncompromising hostility among different religions, but within the same religion it gave birth to unending clashes, unforseen intolerance and created such shameful examples that served the purpose of latter day anti religious forces. The second threat, and that is more dangerous, to this “theology of presence” has come from movements like new age spirituality, occult practices and pseudo spiritual shopping malls. Whereas traditional religion and traditional metaphysics taught us to see this world as a reflection and reverberation of transcendental realm, the new age spirituality has tragically represented the divine realm as an “extended expression” of human realm and this immanent universe. This has been sort of shifting the frame of reference and with this shifting of frames, the meaning of spirituality and metaphysics is inverted on its head. This misplaced mysticism and consumerist spirituality is far dangerous than no spirituality at all. In absence of spirituality, one may set out to discover the genuine and true spiritual traditions, but the presence of fake and pseudo spirituality creates a halo effect around man and his genuine thirst and quest is buried under the garb of this “materialistic spirituality”.

There are no palatable solutions to this malice that has invaded our religious obligation of perpetual presence and taught us to be satisfied with rituals without knowing their meaning. What one can do is to read, if one can, the religious scriptures and try to get to the roots of these scriptures. Look out for commonalities among scriptures and try to make a sense out of these commonalities. Another suggestion is to read the authors like Rene Guneon, Frithjof Schoun, Martin Lings, William Chittick and others of their class. What is special about these authors is that they speak about traditional metaphysics in contemporary idiom with an insight that is both inspiring as well as awakening. Finally we must note and note it seriously that life is not a profane activity sprinkled with events of sacred prayers, rather life is sacred as a whole and the existential realisation of this axiom is fundamental postulate on which all religions stand.

(The author is a freelance columnist with bachelors in Electrical Engineering and a student of comparative studies with special interests in Iqbaliyat & mystic thought. He contributes a weekly column for this newspaper that appears every Monday. He can be reached at: amirkas2016@gmail.com)

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Kathua verdict: fact, fable and fiction

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Shabbir Aariz                                   

Finally some relief has been accorded to the family of the victim, Asifa by the trial judge Mr Tejwinder Singh by convicting and punishing the guilty. But it is too little if not too late. The investigating agency has undoubtedly done a commendable job in piecing together the evidence against the odds and succeeded in obtaining conviction for criminal conspiracy, gang rape, poisoning and murder of 8year old Asifa on 17th of January 2018 in Rasana village near Kathua in Jammu. Rape is the fourth most common crime against women in India. The National Crime Records Bureau of India suggests a reported rape rate of 2 per 100,000 people, much lower than reported rape incidence rate in the local Indian media. However, Times of India reported the data by National Crime Records Bureau unveiling that 93 women are being raped in India every day. Every year 7,200 minors are raped as the statistics suggest without unreported ones. Rape is, surprisingly a weapon of punishment in India. In 2014, in Jharkhand village elders ordered the rape of a 14year old. The husband of the woman who was assaulted sexually was told to carry out the rape. As the woman’s husband dragged the girl to a nearby forest, villagers only looked on. Earlier West Bengal village reportedly ordered the gang rape of a 20 year old woman for falling in love with a man from another community. Even in case of Kathua, two BJP ministers stood in favor of the accused. Sexual crimes being committed with impunity not even sparing foreign tourists led to issuance of rape advisories like women travelling should exercise caution when travelling in India even if they are travelling in a group, avoid hailing taxis from streets or using public transport at night. India feels like it is going through an upsurge of sexual violence against children and after several incidents including Asifa’s, received widespread media attention and triggered public protest. The Prime Minister condemned it and UN Secretary General, Antonio Guiterres said “guilty must be held responsible” describing the incident “horrific”. This led the Government of India to reform its penal code for crimes of rape and sexual assault. As such India’s cabinet approved the introduction of death penalty for those who rape children. The executive order was cleared at a special cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Modi. It allowed capital punishment for anyone convicted of raping children under the age of 12. India’s poor record of dealing with sexual violence came to fore after 2012 gang rape and murder of a student on a Delhi bus. The four men involved were sentenced to death. The Supreme Court maintained the death sentence of the convicts; Akshay Thakur, Vinay Sharma, Pawan Gupta and Mukesh. Rejecting their appeal Justice R Banumathi said the men committed “a barbaric crime” that had “shaken society’s conscience”. It is worthwhile to mention that the death penalty to the said persons was given in the year 2013 while as the executive ordinance came in April 2018 after Asifa’s incident and of a 16year old girl in northern Uttar Pradesh by a member of BJP, Kuldeep Sengar (ironically, victim’s father was arrested and thereafter killed by the Kuldeep’s supporters.) Prior to 2012, there was no single law specifically dealing with children as victims of sexual offences. Then came Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act in 2012, India’s first comprehensive law to deal specifically with child sex abuse and surprisingly the number of reported cases of child abuse rose by nearly 45% the next year.

The new amendments enable a court to hand out a death penalty to someone convicted of raping a child under 12, even if it does not result in death. In countries like China, Egypt, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Afghanistan, rape is punishable with nothing short of death by hanging, beheading or firing squad. Despite the changes to the law and arming Indian courts, there is reluctance to carry out the death penalty. Is there anything wrong with the collective Indian psyche that deters even courts from putting curbs on sexual crimes against even minors? One feels disgusted for the punishment not being exemplary in Asifa’s case when on trial crimes like gang rape and murder were proved. The court was saddled with the law and verdicts of Supreme Court where death penalty awarded was not interfered with and also its observations emphasizing the gravity of such crime with its impact on the society. Do the laws also have a fiction value? When do we really implement them? Is something more needed to shake society’s conscience? It is more likely that the convicts in this case will go in appeal to the higher court against the judgement. The verdict of the lower court also calls for a counter appeal by the prosecution seeking enhancement of punishment to death of the convicts.

 

(A leading lawyer and eminent poet, author contributes a weekly column. He can be reached at:  vaklishabir@gmail.com)     

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Let’s Become Environmental Protectionists!

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Dr. Shahid Amin Trali

It’s very alarming to find the unending disturbances to our environment. Man’s foul play with the nature is not going well with the present as well as our future. The environmental problems are mounting towards a bigger trouble in future but we are yet to recover from deep hibernation/sleep mode. This menace of pollution has existed for centuries but increased at an alarming rate after industrial revolution in the 19th century. Pollution is one of the biggest global killers, affecting over 100 million people. The world’s population is ever increasing and the treasures of the resources are getting overexploited.

 

There is greater need that we must promote better and efficient use of resources. Mass production of plastics, which began just six decades ago, has accelerated very rapidly—most of it in disposable products that end up as trash. If business goes on as usual, plastic pollution will double over the next thirty years. That would mean there will be more plastic in the ocean than fish. Plastics have several health hazards, both for humans and animals. Not just that, it is detrimental for the environment too. We must encourage the reduction, recycling and re-use of wastes as raw material for new products. Our younger generation is highly creative and all they must be given is ample support and opportunities. We must promote ‘Jugaad’ creation, the idea of using the waste to make something novel and save resources. We need to set examples from our home places and re-use what we would easily throw away and conserve for a future.  What we cannot recycle let us try not use them. Let’s promote paper products as they break down better in the environment and don’t affect our nature as much.

Learning to be more environmentally friendly is not that difficult task than we think. We must start by living with a greater awareness of the resources that we use in our daily life.  For example we must turn off the lights as soon as we leave a room in our homes and offices or even schools and colleges.  We must be environmental friendly when it comes to building our homes and buildings. Trees are necessary for us to survive. We must plant small trees around our home, don’t cut them unless it’s necessary, work with local environmental groups to plant more trees and educate others about the beauty and benefits of trees.

Water needs to be conserved. Few ways to conserve water are – take short showers, keep the running tap close while we brush our teeth, recycle water in our home, use water saving appliances etc. More good ways to contribute will be consume less energy, buy recycled products, and create less waste and many more. We must refrain from open burning as backyard trash and leaf burning releases high levels of toxic compounds. We must use public transit as much as possible. Let us walk more and drive less to conserve fuel and prevent auto-emission. Let’s use bicycles and scooters for shorter distances to save resources.

Cleanliness leads to cleanliness. We can easily find that a dirty place adds to its dirtiness. When we come across a fresh place, we think twice before turning it bad and dirty. It is sad when we think for our clean homes and hardly care for the roads, hospitals, educational institutions, offices, markets etc. Our mindset has to undergo a big overhaul that our public property is our own property.

India is one of the three worst offending countries when it comes to environmental performance. Corporate leaders have started joining the race to save the planet. Being environment-friendly, eco-friendly, going green are huge claims referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that inflict reduced, minimal, or no harm at all, upon ecosystems or the environment. But the attempts need to be strong and concrete. Small and medium sized companies in particular generate a lot of pollution and need awareness and support policies to safeguard the environment.

Individuals, organizations and governments need to join hands to protect our environment.  Let’s educate others about the significance of living an environmentally friendly life. The more we will share an awareness of the richness of the environment, the more we can do together to protect it. Environmental love and care must receive an all time attention and priority. Let’s go beyond the model building exercises for safer environment and turn them into reality. Organizations must appreciate and reward the employees for their environmental care.

The Philippines recently has taken a unique and wonderful initiative. The island country passed a law under which every student there has to mandatorily plant ten trees in order to get their graduation degree. The law if it is implemented properly will ensure that over 175 million trees will be planted every year. The law will be applicable for college, elementary, and high school students as well. Our education system must owe greater responsibility towards environment and find some unique strategies to safeguard it. Let’s go green and pledge to protect our environment. (The author is Assistant Professor, ITM University Gwalior, Youth Ambassador, International Youth Society. He can be mailed on: dr.shahidamin15@gmail.com)

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