By Dr Aftab Husain
Literature, unlike other forms of discourse, is profuse in its multiplicity of meanings, that is, it offers a contested site of polysemy — meanings or layers of meanings; diverse, divergent and, at times, competing against one another. However, a propensity for preferred readings dictated by our personal idiosyncrasies, socio-political orientations and ideological formations regards the literary text as a mere fossilised object of enquiry. As a result not only do we keep sticking to our routine and clichéd interpretations but also become susceptible to overlooking pauses, silent moments and blank spaces that offer significant messages encoded deliberately or unconsciously within literary texts.
This is by no means to suggest that one should shun a realist understanding and appreciation of literature, but a critic must be alive and alert to truth-claims and be able to delve deep into textual structures.
Let us take a few examples from our literature. First, a famous couplet by Iqbal:
Uthaa Kar Phaink Do Baahar, Gali Mein
Nayi Tahzeeb Ke Ande Hain Gande.
These two lines that come at the beginning of a short poem may be roughly translated in the following way:
Pick and throw them out in the alley
The eggs of the new civilisation are rotten.
A new civilisation, as we all know, stands here for Western civilisation and the point needs no elaboration that Iqbal, as he was championing the cause of the Muslim Ummah, regarded Westerncivilization as a perpetual Other of his own. Though the poet, at times, confesses and, at the same time, laments the realisation: ‘my intellect is Western/European’ (Meri Daanish Hay Afrangi), but he is also undisputedly one of the harshest critics of Western civilization, and in that capacity he warns his coreligionists apocalyptically against its supposed onslaughts.
The above-mentioned couplet may not be a proper example of his artistically refined poetry, but, thematically it does represent a strand of thought that accompanied our poet throughout his literary life and in this way it can be taken as truly representative of his ideological regimes. Now, the critique of Western civilisation is clear,and this is how this couplet is interpreted and quoted and rightly so. But let us visualise the site of enunciation and try to locate where the poet is to be found in this couplet. He mentions only one location: an alley. But he is not there as the word ‘outside’ in the first line indicates. He is somewhere inside — possibly in a house — from where he urges his fellow inhabitants to perform the act of tossing the rotten eggs. Now, we see two locations: the house – the private space, and the alley — the public space. We can take these two spaces also as distinct signifiers of individual and society. Now we see that the poet-protagonist urges us to pick the eggs, as they are already rotten, from the private space and throw them out in the public space. Surely this is not the message that the poet consciously wishes to convey to us. He wants to warn us sincerely against Western intellectual onslaught, but the latent message of differentiation between a private and public space — a clear-cut prioritisation of the first and downgrading of the second — surfaces as a powerful sub-text, so powerful that it can render the so-called main text as a superficial façade.
For the second example we can take a famous poem by Faiz, arguably one of his representative pieces of poetry:
Mujh Se Pahle Si Mohabbat Mere Mere Mahboob Na Maang.
Written at the juncture of love and revolution — a trope typical of the Progressive Movement, this poem hashaunting images of the female body, nostalgia and the transience of life. Above all, it is considered the epitome of Faiz’s intermingling of Gham e Jaanan and Gham e Dauraan, that is, of romantic love and social concerns. The male protagonist – the only speaking subject –has been in love till now. He tells his female counterpart that though she still retains her feminine charm, he now has to break the bond between then and leave her in order to pursue a nobler and loftier cause to help the downtrodden and wretched of the earth. The female, a deposed beloved, is silent, or ‘rendered’ silent by this abrupt and frenzied change of mind from her co-traveller, his immediate and unanticipated disengagement from a mutual affair and a reciprocal process. But here, she hears a unilateral decision; neither is she asked to give her opinion nor requested a camaraderie on the new ideological journey — she is just handed a final decision. Majaz, one of the brilliant poets in the progressive camps, has an almost similar issue in his poems:
Nau-Jawaan Khatoon Se (To a Young Lady).
Tere Mathe Pay Ye Aanchal Bahut Hi Khoob Hay, Lekin
Too Is Aanchal Se Ik Parcham Banaa Leti Tau Accha Thaa
[Quite suits this veil to your forehead though
Better you had made a flag with this piece of cloth.]
Here, again we are confronted with the dialectics of femininity and revolution — again a male subject is addressing a female figure. However, now we find a mild, polite and gentle suggestion that gives latitude to the other party of accepting or rejecting the proposal. There is something mature, dignified and human about this utterance. The protagonist in Faiz’s poem, on the other hand, imposes a decision — a decision that verges on a dictation. Here class consciousness is in focus but at the cost of sheer oblivion of gender sensitivity. Here abstract humanism is much more important than a human being made of flesh and blood.
The above examples were selected from poetry only for lack of space. Any literary form or genre can be put to this scrutiny. One can, for instance, have a look at Manto and examine his perspectives on women, the female body, and especially the question of female agency in his narrative scheme. This is important also for the reason that Manto — a keen observer and a harsh critic of social life and human conditions — had always abhorred hagiographies. It would probably have come as a surprise to Manto to see the way he is being converted into a cult — a sanctified personage — with an eternally defined message.
A reader — especially a critic who is none other than a keener, a more alive reader and is surely not in any way a credulous fool — is supposed to take each claim made by a writer with a grain of salt. Seeing things barely on their face value gives not only a superficial appreciation of the given text, but it has, in most cases, a devastatingly dangerous domino effect that keeps on corrupting generations to come with a facile and fallacious mindset.
It is high time that we braved the hackneyed and hegemonic epistemologies traditionally transmitted and taught and mindlessly followed in our literary culture, especially in the academy, and cast a fresh, profound look at our literature: a literature that presumably has the potential to erode our erroneous notions and help inculcate a weltanschauung – more sublime.
Theology of Presence
Amir Suhail Wani
“O you who believe! Remember Allah With much remembrance”: Al Quran
To believe is to be in a state of presence. Presence, though not the climax, but is, one of the most cherished states and authentic manifestations of belief. To let God stay far away in the realm of abstraction and beyond-ness not only dilutes the spirit of worship, but it brings under scrutiny the very notion of belief. Religion, in its finest form, aims at invoking in man the spirit of presence, so that the believer may feel and experience the himself in presence of divine and may thus be able to envision a living and existential relationship with his creator and his object of devotion. Religion, even in its basic etymological connotation invokes the sense of “connectedness and attachment” with the object of devotion. It is in the very essence of man that he wants to be greater than what he is and when submitting before the divine, the individual, finite and subjective ego undergoes an existential, psychological and spiritual transformation of unique nature which expands its contours beyond those of physical perimeters. In any act of worship, the subject envisages the object of devotion as infinite and it not only pays homage to that infinite by bowing to it, but it very much desires to expand its own finitude under the radiance of that eternal infinite. This is what is meant by the philosophical benediction that “make me Thou, not an it”.
This human urge of finding means of self expansion by submitting before the divine is the greatest expression of human will and self sacrifice. But this spirit is rendered meaningless and antithetical when religion, in its state of decline, reduces to mere theology. In this reductionism, God remains no longer a living reality in the life of believer. He is rather replaced by a set of axioms and statements which fail to stimulate and satisfy the deepest spiritual yearnings of man and this deepest spiritual yearning is nothing but an aspiration to come in living contact with the divine and transcendental. Islam and for that matter most of the religions strongly condemn the deistic notions about God for it leaves absolutely no scope for religious indoctrination and creates an unimaginable void in the realm of Transcendence. It is in response to nuances like these that the notion of presence assumes multifold importance. It is not only prayer but our entire life that demands, by virtue of its spiritual dimension, that we live perpetually under the spell of divine. Thus religions teach us not merely to pray and thus make prayer a part of our life, but they come to turn our entire life into a sort of prayer. This transformation of life itself into prayer is what has best been embodied by Islamic teachings which reiterate time and again that all acts shall be done according to the law/s prescribed by God and at the beginning and end of each of our activity, the name of God shall be invoked. Not only this, the orations we recite at various instances from entering a washroom to starting our prayer are nothing but a beautiful way of making God a perpetual and living presence in our lives. None of our activities shall be divorced from Transcendent and while we are bodily constantly engaged in acts of world and matter, our heads, hearts and souls shall be perpetually turned to the divine. This act of remembering God in world of forgetting paves the way for “discovering God through material representations”. The highest form of this discovery is prayer and within prayer itself it is dua that marks the height of living relationship between God and believer. The purpose of prayer, as has been narrowly appropriated lately is not merely to make God change his mind and to bring our naive desires to fruition. Prayer is in fact the testimony of our living and real time relationship of servitude and dependency on God. Thus when God asserts “If My servants ask you regarding Me, I am indeed Near. I answer the call of those who call upon Me when they call. So let them answer My call and let them believe in believe in Me–in order that they be truly guided.”, he makes us understand in most emphatic and explicit way that he is very much existentially related to us and responds to our prayers. This response to prayer shall not be seen as the fulfilment of our prayers in material realm (which is true on its own), but it shall invoke in us the existential quest and inspire us to awaken our slumbering spiritual sensibility so that we may truly feel that God is indeed responding to us as our creator and as an object truly worthy of our devotion and worship.
This notion of presence has been subjected to double irony. The religious centric people lost sight of this appeal and dedicated their energies in confining and codifying God in their formulae of logical atomism. They rigidly tried to fix God in their self made definitions made out of untenable language as if trying to fit a square peg in a round hole. While as the role of this intellectual cum theological process can’t be belittled, but their overemphasis on making God comply to their abstractions and creating an unsurpassable chasm between the creator and creation surely set them on too rigid a path. The aftermath of this theorization of God not only created uncompromising hostility among different religions, but within the same religion it gave birth to unending clashes, unforseen intolerance and created such shameful examples that served the purpose of latter day anti religious forces. The second threat, and that is more dangerous, to this “theology of presence” has come from movements like new age spirituality, occult practices and pseudo spiritual shopping malls. Whereas traditional religion and traditional metaphysics taught us to see this world as a reflection and reverberation of transcendental realm, the new age spirituality has tragically represented the divine realm as an “extended expression” of human realm and this immanent universe. This has been sort of shifting the frame of reference and with this shifting of frames, the meaning of spirituality and metaphysics is inverted on its head. This misplaced mysticism and consumerist spirituality is far dangerous than no spirituality at all. In absence of spirituality, one may set out to discover the genuine and true spiritual traditions, but the presence of fake and pseudo spirituality creates a halo effect around man and his genuine thirst and quest is buried under the garb of this “materialistic spirituality”.
There are no palatable solutions to this malice that has invaded our religious obligation of perpetual presence and taught us to be satisfied with rituals without knowing their meaning. What one can do is to read, if one can, the religious scriptures and try to get to the roots of these scriptures. Look out for commonalities among scriptures and try to make a sense out of these commonalities. Another suggestion is to read the authors like Rene Guneon, Frithjof Schoun, Martin Lings, William Chittick and others of their class. What is special about these authors is that they speak about traditional metaphysics in contemporary idiom with an insight that is both inspiring as well as awakening. Finally we must note and note it seriously that life is not a profane activity sprinkled with events of sacred prayers, rather life is sacred as a whole and the existential realisation of this axiom is fundamental postulate on which all religions stand.
(The author is a freelance columnist with bachelors in Electrical Engineering and a student of comparative studies with special interests in Iqbaliyat & mystic thought. He contributes a weekly column for this newspaper that appears every Monday. He can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kathua verdict: fact, fable and fiction
Finally some relief has been accorded to the family of the victim, Asifa by the trial judge Mr Tejwinder Singh by convicting and punishing the guilty. But it is too little if not too late. The investigating agency has undoubtedly done a commendable job in piecing together the evidence against the odds and succeeded in obtaining conviction for criminal conspiracy, gang rape, poisoning and murder of 8year old Asifa on 17th of January 2018 in Rasana village near Kathua in Jammu. Rape is the fourth most common crime against women in India. The National Crime Records Bureau of India suggests a reported rape rate of 2 per 100,000 people, much lower than reported rape incidence rate in the local Indian media. However, Times of India reported the data by National Crime Records Bureau unveiling that 93 women are being raped in India every day. Every year 7,200 minors are raped as the statistics suggest without unreported ones. Rape is, surprisingly a weapon of punishment in India. In 2014, in Jharkhand village elders ordered the rape of a 14year old. The husband of the woman who was assaulted sexually was told to carry out the rape. As the woman’s husband dragged the girl to a nearby forest, villagers only looked on. Earlier West Bengal village reportedly ordered the gang rape of a 20 year old woman for falling in love with a man from another community. Even in case of Kathua, two BJP ministers stood in favor of the accused. Sexual crimes being committed with impunity not even sparing foreign tourists led to issuance of rape advisories like women travelling should exercise caution when travelling in India even if they are travelling in a group, avoid hailing taxis from streets or using public transport at night. India feels like it is going through an upsurge of sexual violence against children and after several incidents including Asifa’s, received widespread media attention and triggered public protest. The Prime Minister condemned it and UN Secretary General, Antonio Guiterres said “guilty must be held responsible” describing the incident “horrific”. This led the Government of India to reform its penal code for crimes of rape and sexual assault. As such India’s cabinet approved the introduction of death penalty for those who rape children. The executive order was cleared at a special cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Modi. It allowed capital punishment for anyone convicted of raping children under the age of 12. India’s poor record of dealing with sexual violence came to fore after 2012 gang rape and murder of a student on a Delhi bus. The four men involved were sentenced to death. The Supreme Court maintained the death sentence of the convicts; Akshay Thakur, Vinay Sharma, Pawan Gupta and Mukesh. Rejecting their appeal Justice R Banumathi said the men committed “a barbaric crime” that had “shaken society’s conscience”. It is worthwhile to mention that the death penalty to the said persons was given in the year 2013 while as the executive ordinance came in April 2018 after Asifa’s incident and of a 16year old girl in northern Uttar Pradesh by a member of BJP, Kuldeep Sengar (ironically, victim’s father was arrested and thereafter killed by the Kuldeep’s supporters.) Prior to 2012, there was no single law specifically dealing with children as victims of sexual offences. Then came Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act in 2012, India’s first comprehensive law to deal specifically with child sex abuse and surprisingly the number of reported cases of child abuse rose by nearly 45% the next year.
The new amendments enable a court to hand out a death penalty to someone convicted of raping a child under 12, even if it does not result in death. In countries like China, Egypt, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Afghanistan, rape is punishable with nothing short of death by hanging, beheading or firing squad. Despite the changes to the law and arming Indian courts, there is reluctance to carry out the death penalty. Is there anything wrong with the collective Indian psyche that deters even courts from putting curbs on sexual crimes against even minors? One feels disgusted for the punishment not being exemplary in Asifa’s case when on trial crimes like gang rape and murder were proved. The court was saddled with the law and verdicts of Supreme Court where death penalty awarded was not interfered with and also its observations emphasizing the gravity of such crime with its impact on the society. Do the laws also have a fiction value? When do we really implement them? Is something more needed to shake society’s conscience? It is more likely that the convicts in this case will go in appeal to the higher court against the judgement. The verdict of the lower court also calls for a counter appeal by the prosecution seeking enhancement of punishment to death of the convicts.
(A leading lawyer and eminent poet, author contributes a weekly column. He can be reached at: email@example.com)
Let’s Become Environmental Protectionists!
Dr. Shahid Amin Trali
It’s very alarming to find the unending disturbances to our environment. Man’s foul play with the nature is not going well with the present as well as our future. The environmental problems are mounting towards a bigger trouble in future but we are yet to recover from deep hibernation/sleep mode. This menace of pollution has existed for centuries but increased at an alarming rate after industrial revolution in the 19th century. Pollution is one of the biggest global killers, affecting over 100 million people. The world’s population is ever increasing and the treasures of the resources are getting overexploited.
There is greater need that we must promote better and efficient use of resources. Mass production of plastics, which began just six decades ago, has accelerated very rapidly—most of it in disposable products that end up as trash. If business goes on as usual, plastic pollution will double over the next thirty years. That would mean there will be more plastic in the ocean than fish. Plastics have several health hazards, both for humans and animals. Not just that, it is detrimental for the environment too. We must encourage the reduction, recycling and re-use of wastes as raw material for new products. Our younger generation is highly creative and all they must be given is ample support and opportunities. We must promote ‘Jugaad’ creation, the idea of using the waste to make something novel and save resources. We need to set examples from our home places and re-use what we would easily throw away and conserve for a future. What we cannot recycle let us try not use them. Let’s promote paper products as they break down better in the environment and don’t affect our nature as much.
Learning to be more environmentally friendly is not that difficult task than we think. We must start by living with a greater awareness of the resources that we use in our daily life. For example we must turn off the lights as soon as we leave a room in our homes and offices or even schools and colleges. We must be environmental friendly when it comes to building our homes and buildings. Trees are necessary for us to survive. We must plant small trees around our home, don’t cut them unless it’s necessary, work with local environmental groups to plant more trees and educate others about the beauty and benefits of trees.
Water needs to be conserved. Few ways to conserve water are – take short showers, keep the running tap close while we brush our teeth, recycle water in our home, use water saving appliances etc. More good ways to contribute will be consume less energy, buy recycled products, and create less waste and many more. We must refrain from open burning as backyard trash and leaf burning releases high levels of toxic compounds. We must use public transit as much as possible. Let us walk more and drive less to conserve fuel and prevent auto-emission. Let’s use bicycles and scooters for shorter distances to save resources.
Cleanliness leads to cleanliness. We can easily find that a dirty place adds to its dirtiness. When we come across a fresh place, we think twice before turning it bad and dirty. It is sad when we think for our clean homes and hardly care for the roads, hospitals, educational institutions, offices, markets etc. Our mindset has to undergo a big overhaul that our public property is our own property.
India is one of the three worst offending countries when it comes to environmental performance. Corporate leaders have started joining the race to save the planet. Being environment-friendly, eco-friendly, going green are huge claims referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that inflict reduced, minimal, or no harm at all, upon ecosystems or the environment. But the attempts need to be strong and concrete. Small and medium sized companies in particular generate a lot of pollution and need awareness and support policies to safeguard the environment.
Individuals, organizations and governments need to join hands to protect our environment. Let’s educate others about the significance of living an environmentally friendly life. The more we will share an awareness of the richness of the environment, the more we can do together to protect it. Environmental love and care must receive an all time attention and priority. Let’s go beyond the model building exercises for safer environment and turn them into reality. Organizations must appreciate and reward the employees for their environmental care.
The Philippines recently has taken a unique and wonderful initiative. The island country passed a law under which every student there has to mandatorily plant ten trees in order to get their graduation degree. The law if it is implemented properly will ensure that over 175 million trees will be planted every year. The law will be applicable for college, elementary, and high school students as well. Our education system must owe greater responsibility towards environment and find some unique strategies to safeguard it. Let’s go green and pledge to protect our environment. (The author is Assistant Professor, ITM University Gwalior, Youth Ambassador, International Youth Society. He can be mailed on: firstname.lastname@example.org)
‘The Real Kashmir’ film gets shortlisted in PR Lions at Cannes Lions 2019
Indian agencies received 23 shortlists on day two of the Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. Dentsu Webchutney received the...
Shah Faesal, Engineer Rashid announce pre-poll alliance
Former IAS officer Shah Faesal and former MLA Engineer Rashid on Tuesday announced a pre-poll alliance to contest the upcoming...
Two JeM militants killed in Bijbehara were key players in Lethpora attack: GOC 15 Corps
Srinagar, June 18: Army on Tuesday said that two militants of Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) outfit killed in Marhama area of Bijbehara...
Two youth from Pulwama shun militancy: Police
Pulwama: Two youths from Pulwama have returned to the mainstream, with the help of community members and their families, police...
Govt teachers to get salary only after getting ‘attendance certificate’ in Kishtwar
Jammu: Authorities in Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir have decided to release the salary of the teaching staff in...
Body of civilian found near encounter site at Bidoora Achabal
Srinagar, June 18: Body of a civilian was found near encounter site at Bidoora, Aknigam area of Achabal in south...
Pulwama IED blast: Two soldiers succumb to injuries
Two army personnel, who were injured in an IED attack on a mobile vehicle patrol in Pulwama, succumbed to their...
Two JeM militants,army man killed in Bijbehara gunfight
Srinagar, June 18: Two JeM militants, an army soldier was killed while as two armymen sustained bullet wounds in ongoing...