By Bhushan Parimoo
A long cherished desire to participate in the celebration of Mata Baderkali festival at Handwara, Kashmir was at last realised. The Mata Baderkali Sathapan Committee made it possible for me and I remain indebted to them on this account.
The experience is a matter of satisfaction and revealing one though the wish realized this October at the twilight of mortal frame after seventy plus summers. Slender had become the thread between to be there and the final abode! But well said “better late than never” perhaps it was all predestined.
Two things which had baptised the fire to visit this shrine had been the influence of my dear mother who often visited this holy shrine in her childhood days when her father was posted in the Forest Department, sometime about 1930 and resided in village Chanam. The other one as transpired about forty years ago from a book that late Syed Ahmed Shah, who retired as Inspector General of Police, popularly known as Shamji, during his childhood days was not keeping good health, a caused of worry in the family.
It was here at Mata Baderkali shrine his mother Dulhan Begum (from Udhampur) wife of late Syed Ahmed Ali Shah of Teetwal who too served the Forest Department, paid obeisance and prayed for her son’s good health. It is believed that a Sadhu in the shrine assured that her prayers had been accepted and called the child Shamji. From then onwards the name ‘Shamji’ stuck with the boy’s name and later in his adult life.
Just utter the name Mata Baderkali to any Kashmiri anywhere on this planet, irrespective of faith, and the person without hesitation shall respond suffixing it with “of Handwara”. Situated about 7 kms west from Handwara connected by all-weather motor road the abode of Mata Baderkali is situated on a small hilltop amidst a rich and thick coniferous Deodars forest covering an area of about 116 Kanals. Earlier there used to be a wooden structure and wooden idol of Mata. However, as narrated by Late Keshav ji Darbari, my maternal grandfather, the wooden idol was replaced by a Shila. A bi-annual three-days celebration is organised during Navratras with a Maha Yaga performed for peace prosperity for all with of blessings Baderkali.
The Maha Yaga starts from the evening of the 7th of Navratra with Kalash Pooja and followed by the other religious ceremonies amidst Vedic Mantras recited for whole night till its conclusion next afternoon with a Puran Ahuti. And on the third day that is called Ramnavmi, a goat is sacrificed as per rituals and traditions sanctimonious to Maa Kali. Devotees from nook and corner of the country and even overseas make it a point to visit the shrine to pay obeisance.
Apart from the Kashmiri Pandits, once residents in the state, and the business class called Khatris, whose Kuldevi is Baderkali, participate in the Yaga and seek blessing. A little below where the shrine is situated is the village called Baderkal at the foothill which has cent percent population that followers Islam, but as a tradition inhabitants all along ensure the sanctity of this holy shrine is maintained at any cost against all heavy odds .
Down below once thickly populated Hindu population of the village Wadipora ,under whose care primarily the shrine used to be are known to have look after the shrine before the recent migration of the Pandits .It were they who after the biannual celebratory function used to pay daily obeisance to the deity, traversing about 8 kms to and fro throughout the year in all seasons even in inclement weather through mountain of snow , braving the threat of carnivorous and ferocious wild animals like bear and leopards. In that sense their faith complete devotion has been exemplary.
Wadipora at present has a complete deserted look and in ruins. A silence of a grave yard prevails all over and presents very depressing scenario.
Needless to add that in earlier times the devotees from other area also used to participate in full number in the Maha Yaga and offered sacrifice of goats. Even Langars used to be found spreads all around here and there during the occasion. The hustle and bustle gave a festive look. Shops of essential items used to be erected by the locals adding to the look of a big Mela. Tragically, the migration of the Pandits has topsy-turvy to the old tradition.
It followed with the shrine being subjected to desecration by the fanatics that made the army to step in and take control and repair the shrine. Currently the army performs daily Puja. It is learnt that during 2004 the authorities in the army were of the view that tradition be carried by the Baradrian itself to restore confidence as the scenario then appeared inching towards normalcy. Sanatan Dharm Sabha Handwara came forward and revived the tradition even when the entire population of devotees in Kupwara, Baramula districts and other places had shifted per force outside the valley for safety despite this still the heart and memories of the devotees lay in the valley.
During Ramnavmi the devotees conduct Bhandara regularly at Jammu which serves as a meeting point for confabulations to chalk out the future line of action as to how to protect the shrine in difficult times while carrying on and keeping alive the tradition as per faith. Towards this objective a unanimous decision was arrived at to form a Mata Baderkali Asthapan Committee in 2012.
A 15 members committee was constituted through consensus with Dileep Pandita, President, Sh Ashok Kumar Kaw, General Secretary and Chnand ji Pandita as Organiser.
The Committee works in complete cohesion that lends it the strength for a multi-pronged strategy to deliver by way of restoring the biannual Maha Yaga at Mata Baderkali shrine with its earlier traditional gaiety and glory through the spirit of cooperation , volunteerism and devotion .
The committee ensures that those who wish to perform pilgrimage do not encounter any impediment or obstacle. Such efforts have attracted more and more devotees over the passage of time resulting in restoring the glory of Mata’s celebrations at the shrine in its zenith. Apart from these activities the Committee also is making efforts, for persons who cannot undertake arduous journey due to old age infirmity and other reasons beyond control to the holy shrine, to build a replica of the shrine by way of a temple at Jammu itself where majority of devotees live after migration. In these efforts about 13 Kanals of land already stands purchased.
The Committee further intends to add more land subject to funds besides build a complex, apart from the temple of Mata, comprising institutions like school and all going well an old age home as well. For the present writer the pilgrimage was most revealing in its totality and was a satisfying one.
The Mata Baderkali Asthapan Committee over the years has perfected the deliverance system for smooth hassle-free celebration of the event even as every bit of items for Yaga, arrangements for the Yatris at the shrine has to be catered from Handwara with a limited manpower which though is also not an easy job.
However, it may be pointed out that the shrine lacks accommodation for the participating devotees and also, requires sanitation facilities as per requirement besides the electricity facilities. It may be recalled that during his Prime Minister ship of Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad electricity was provided right up to the Holy Shrine.
However, with a passage of time after him all that is gone except that the Baradrian still remembers it vividly and are grateful. In more recent years, the devotees in large numbers have started performing pilgrimage to shrine once again but still miles away what it used to be earlier or has the potential for. It is laudable that the administration renders all necessary help and courteous cooperation to make Yatra a success by providing adequate security from both the ‘gun and wild animals’ for all those who brave during night at temperature of one or two degree centigrade. Essential services such as medical assistance, portable water, food items, fire Services were there. That apart, the Holy Shrine needs a number of Yatri Bhavans, community halls ,adequate modern toilet facilities, assured transport service, reliable electric supply and more importantly reliable Net services for connectivity in the remote and vulnerable area as it is.
The minuscule community of the Yatris deserves ample confidence from the government to convey that their needs are recognised; while as from public it is readily available and that too in plenty which makes this Yatra possible. For greater popularity of the Yatra ritual a master plan needs to be formulated and submitted to government in consultation with the Mata Baderkali Asthapan Committee a duly registered body for the development of adequate facilities of the Yatris.
All praises deserve for the efforts in arranging this Mela which is being revived in its original festivity by the Committee that is inching towards its pristine glory as a model of brotherhood. In order to have a greater festive look of the Mela and connected celebrations, other aspects of the event should cover broader canvass of activities. Stalls of Information Department would be welcome as the Pandit community is book lover who always seek knowledge .
Heard elders during late hours deliberation literature, most of it from the persons of other faith not confined to any particular faith, there lies our strength .The writer learns that Vishvanath Raina nearing eighties from the area is producing a documentary film on his personal experience about the composite culture of Kashmir thrived once despite diversion of faiths got worst beating. The initiative needs to be restored. Culture activities presenting local culture has to be presented for the youngsters who may have heard but never seen, tourism informative activities to be stressed upon area has rich spots both religious and otherwise.
Large number of locals from various villages both male females children thronged to this place to find and meet their acquaintances was a scene to watch which gave joy of one fraternity at the same time pain why a separation befallen and brought suffering on both side. One suffered due to migration, rendered houseless from well off to pecuniary on the other hand those left behind suffer from charged atmosphere. In its totality both sides suffers how long no one knows. It is the Rajwar Tigers Brigade has been managing the Yagna and rendering ever kind of comfort to the yatris since it has taken charge of its protection through one of the Rashtriya Rifles command under whose jurisdiction it falls. With military precession every item is being taken care for the function.
(The author is a Jammu based environmentalist)
Faiz and Manto
By Ali Madeeh Hashmi
January 18 was Manto’s 64th death anniversary and it should be noted that Manto has been experiencing something of a renaissance for quite a few years. Manto’s best short stories like ‘Toba Tek Singh’, ‘Mozail’, ‘Hattak’, ‘Naya Qanoon’, ‘Khol Do’ and countless others remain peerless both as works of art as well as searing commentaries on their times. However, even Manto’s most ardent admirers admit that his work is wildly uneven. Exquisite short stories are mixed in with works that are at best hurried and slapdash, at worst incomprehensible. Most of this is, no doubt, a result of the life that Manto lived: a life marred by poverty, alcoholism and mental illness.
In and of itself, this is of no moment. After all, an artiste is free to create and propagate his or her work anyway he likes. But the continuing attention on Manto has had the result of perhaps diverting attention away from a number of other gifted writers some of whom were his contemporaries and some who came later. Writers like UpendranathAshk, Krishan Chander and even the great MunshiPremchand. In addition, later writers like the exquisitely subdued Ghulam Abbas and Muhammad Hasan Askari have not received the kind of attention or accolades that have accrued to Manto.
February 13 was Faiz’s 108th birthday and it seems appropriate to examine what connection (if any) existed between the two. In a couple of interviews, initially noted in Dr Ayub Mirza’s book Hum keThehrayAjnabi, Faiz said: “Manto was my student at the MAO College Amritsar (Faiz’ first job after finishing his MA)”. Faiz went on to note affectionately: “He never studied much, he was mischievous. He…didn’t respect anyone. But he respected me and considered me his ‘ustaad’”.
A recent column in a leading Urdu daily devotes a considerable amount of ink to disproving that Manto was ever Faiz’s student. It points out, correctly, that Faiz was appointed a lecturer in English at the MAO college Amritsar in 1935, probably in the latter half (the exact date is not available). Manto had, by then, already become a translator of some renown having translated and published some Russian short stories as well as Oscar Wilde’s play Vera among others. Manto did join the MAO college Amritsar as a student in 1933 but most likely had dropped out by the time Faiz joined as a lecturer. Subsequently, Manto was briefly a student at the Aligarh Muslim University but had to drop out after being diagnosed with tuberculosis. He returned to Amritsar in August 1935, probably right around the time that Faiz joined MAO college as a teacher. Manto then travelled back and forth between Amritsar and Delhi for treatment and in May 1936, on the advice of his physician moved to Bombay and later (after partition) to Lahore.
It seems obvious that Manto and Faiz were, in fact, present in Amritsar around the same time (mid-late 1935 till summer 1936). Faiz was an up and coming poet having received some acclaim for his poetry while still a student at Government College Lahore and then Oriental College from around 1929 till 1934/35. His poems had been published in Government College’s esteemed literary journal Ravi and his teachers, leading literary lights of the day including Sufi Ghulam Mustafa Tabassum, Dr MD Taseer and Ahmad Shah Bokhari ‘Patras’ were aware of his poetic talents.
In addition, in Amritsar, he was introduced to Syed SajjadZaheer and quickly became one of the leading organisers of the newly emergent All India Progressive Writer’s Association (AIPWA). All through this time, Faiz would undoubtedly have been reciting his poetry both at mushairas and perhaps private events even though the publication of his first volume of poetry Naqsh-e Faryadi was still some years away (1941). Many of Manto’s short stories were also published in the quarterly Adab-e Lateef which Faiz briefly edited around 1939-41. Faiz also defended Manto in court more than once. In Dr Ayub Mirza’s book, he said “Every time he (Manto) would be taken to court, I would be one of the defense witnesses. He was arrested four times; for ‘KaaliShalwar’, ‘ThandaGosht’, ‘Khol Do’ and ‘Dhuan’. The first three times we managed to get him off.”
Manto was actually prosecuted six times for alleged pornography. In addition to the stories Faiz mentions above, he was also taken to court for his stories ‘Bu’ and ‘OoperNeechayaurDarmiyan’. In 1949, Faiz was the convener of the Press Advisory Board tasked with rendering a judgment about whether Manto’s notorious short story ‘ThandaGosht’, published in a special edition of the magazine Javed in March 1949 was a work of art or pornography. In short, the two were well acquainted.
When Faiz says in his interview “Mantoapnashagirdtha”, he clearly means ‘Shagird’ not in the narrow sense of a student enrolled in a class one is teaching in a college or university but someone who seeks guidance from another who he considers more learned or erudite. In addition, when Faiz says
“Wohmeriizzatkartathaaurmujhayustaadmaantatha”, he clearly means ‘Ustaad’ in the Eastern/Indo-Pakistani sense, again, someone learned, older, more worldly who can be confidante/guide and mentor.
Manto, to my knowledge, never referred in writing to any association with Faiz and, fairly early on, dissociated himself from the AIPWA. From his meteoric rise as a short story and then film writer in the late 1930s and early 1940s, to his legal battles over being an alleged pornographer, through his fateful decision to migrate from Bombay to Lahore only to be dogged by continuing legal troubles, alcoholism, mental illness and penury into an early grave, he walked his own lonely path, refusing to compromise what he considered his artistic integrity, refusing to draw a cloak over the ‘unbearable society’ in which he lived.
In 1955, he died in Lahore at the young age of 43. Faiz, languishing in prison at the time under threat of a death sentence for the Rawalpindi ‘Conspiracy’ case wrote: “I was grieved to hear of Manto’s death. Respectable members of our community, who have neither the awareness of the fragility of an artiste’s heart nor any sympathy for it, will probably say that Manto himself is to blame for his death. But no one will wonder why he did this…The problem is that when life and art are in conflict with each other due to social circumstances, one of these has to be sacrificed. The other possibility is of mutual compromise, in which some part of both is sacrificed. The third possibility is to unite the two into a subject of struggle, which only great artistes are capable of.”
Faiz referred in another interview to Manto’s ‘exquisite short stories’ and went on to say “but after 1950, he lost his way. The film or newspaper people would give him a bottle of liquor and have him write whatever they wanted”. None of this is to take away from the greatness of Manto which is universally acknowledged but perhaps we can stop quibbling about what relationship (if any) he had with Faiz; student, peer or fellow artist. Neither one of them is with us today but their art is, and that’s the way it should be.
ODDS TOWARDS ENDS
By Umair Khan
The relationship between Pakistan and India has seen many ups and downs — probably more downs than it should have. Several books have been written to explore the intricacies of this sensitive relationship as both sides try to present arguments from their own perspective in an effort to legitimise their policies and actions. India and Pakistan: Neighbours at Odds is one such endeavour undertaken by Avtar Singh Bhasin, a researcher and former Indian diplomat.
Before writing this book, Bhasin had compiled a 10-volume magnum opus titled India-Pakistan Relations 1947-2007: A Documentary Study comprising original political and diplomatic documents from the archives of the government of India pertaining to Pakistan-India relations. In a way, his new book is a distilled form of the earlier, encyclopaedic work.
India and Pakistan: Neighbours at Odds consists of 34 chapters dedicated to important events in the region’s history in chronological order. The book starts from the woes of Partition and continues up to the mistrust each country holds for the other even today. Looking back over centuries of recorded history of the Indian subcontinent, Bhasin rightly points out that “at no time in the medieval history of India was there a single ruler ruling the entire country from [the] east to the west and north to south. There were many rulers.” Thus, he gives credence to the claim that the Indo-Pak subcontinent has not been a political unity for a long period of time.
Starting proper from the fateful years of the post-Partition era, Bhasin admits that “certain actions of the Indian leaders at the very start of the journey, even if they were rational from the Indian standpoint, such as withholding Pakistan’s share of Sterling balances, the stoppage of canal waters, Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir, did not add to building trust between the two countries, and Pakistan cried foul.” However, he is not able to explain how these actions were rational from the Indian standpoint. The same has been admitted by another former Indian diplomat, ChandrashekharDasgupta, in his book War and Diplomacy in Kashmir, 1947-48, that “the Indian control over the irrigation headworks in Mangla could lead to the ruin of Pakistan’s agricultural economy.”
Bhasin presents the case of the generations of mistrust in a way that implies that the British favoured the Muslim League over Congress during the last days of their Raj, and favoured Pakistan over India during the early days of its independence. However, recent scholarship discredits the author’s claims. In a story published by the BBC in August 2007 titled ‘Partitioning India Over Lunch’, it was revealed that the memoirs of Christopher Beaumont, who was secretary to Sir Cyril Radcliffe, chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission, had been discovered by his son. Beaumont wrote in his memoirs that “the viceroy, Mountbatten, must take the blame — though not the sole blame — for the massacres in the Punjab in which between 500,000 to a million men, women and children perished.” Beaumont categorically stated that Mountbatten favoured the Indian side in the matter of the Radcliffe Boundary Award. This effectively negates Bhasin’s implications that the British favoured Pakistan over India.
When the locals of Kashmir revolted in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, in the words of Bhasin, “unable to opt for the military option, went to the UN considering it the better option. It was a panic decision.” However, the author feels that the platform of the United Nations — that had been created for the peaceful resolution of international disputes — was not the right platform for the Kashmir dispute to be taken to by India’s then prime minister. With hindsight, he believes that Nehru should have opted for the military solution instead.
When the United Nations Security Council passed resolutions in 1948 that asked India to let the people of Kashmir exercise their democratic right of self-determination through a free and fair plebiscite held under the auspices of the UN itself, Bhasin writes that “India had the option of rejecting the resolution since it had gone beyond its reference.” Here, any student of international law can underscore the fact that the UN Security Council has been authorised by the UN Charter to ensure peace and security in the world and its resolutions cannot be rejected by any state on the flimsy ground of “having gone beyond” the reference submitted by that state.
Nehru reneged on his promise to hold a free and fair plebiscite in Kashmir on the flimsy grounds that ground realities had changed after Pakistan made military pacts with the United States during the mid-1950s. Bhasin does not clarify how the signing of these military pacts by Pakistan could disbar the Kashmiri people from exercising their democratic right of self-determination.
Commenting on the nuclearisation of South Asia, Bhasin admits that after a nuclear test was conducted by India in 1974 (Pokhran I), Pakistan proposed in a statement issued in 1980 to declare South Asia a nuclear weapon-free zone. However, Bhasin states that “India was keen on a universal nuclear disarmament, something which was beyond the realm of possibility.” And when India again conducted a nuclear test in 1998 (Pokhran II), forcing Pakistan to conduct a nuclear test as well, Bhasin comments on the nuclearisation of South Asia by writing “both Vajpayee and then Nawaz Sharif did the most unexpected” without putting the blame where it primarily belongs — the side that introduced the nuclear arms race in South Asia.
Reading and understanding the history of Pakistan-India relations has never been more important. The geostrategic situation of the region demands that both the neighbours at odds with each other need to bridge the trust deficit somehow and find some way to move forward. While this book is a good source for understanding the Indian perspective and narrative on important issues, and it is rich in quoting primary source material, it falls somewhat short in the logical analysis of those references. Still, it can prove a good read for students of history and policymakers.
India and Pakistan:
Neighbours at Odds
By Avtar Singh Bhasin
Colours of Asia
By Nijah S. Khan
Asia, the world’s largest and most populous continent, home to 48 countries each with their own diverse cultures and subcultures, languages and religions, presents an interesting situation: What is it to be ‘Asian’? It almost seems impossible that such an expanse of land would have narratives that are similar and relatable, given the uniqueness of the multitudes residing within each Asian nation. Yet in The Best Asian Short Stories of 2017, “different voices, viewpoints and themes combine to shed light upon various facets of the Asian experience,” writes Editor MonideepaSahu in her foreword.
The anthology contains thirty two stories ranging from the skyscrapers of Korea, to the deserts of Jordan, from the rainforests of Malaysia and the historic anguish of the Indo-Pak partition to the impoverished slums of Bangladesh, just to name a few. The particular focus of this omnibus of short stories is precisely the home-grown Asian identity, free from Western attempts to explain what they see as quaint and exotic. The stories ‘Jellybeans’ by Soniah Kamal and ‘The Spaces Between Stars’ by Gita Kothari, which are set in the United States of America are still narrated from the Asian perspective.
Though the call for submissions prescribed no set theme, larger motifs such as extreme poverty and the quest to improve one’s living situation through brutal hard work emerge across the stories; for example in ‘Ladybugs Fly From The Top’ by Korean writer Park Chan-soon, our acrophobic window-washing protagonist dangles daily from the tops of skyscrapers with only ropes attached to a small board, risking his life to make a living. A poor construction worker’s family converts to Christianity from Hinduism in the vain hopes that “their escape in the dead of night from one identity into another” will help transform their lot in life, in ‘Patchwork’ by Shikandin.
In MithranSomasudrum’s ‘The Yakuza Under the Stairs’, Clisty’s tale is a slightly less morose one of rags-to-riches, when the humble immigrant cab driver finds himself the unsuspecting recipient of a sizeable inheritance. The story takes a humorous turn when a pronunciation mixup leads our newly moneyed protagonist to accidentally order a Yakuza (i.e. Japanese gangster for hire) instead of a jacuzzi, for his new home in Thailand.
Of course, no collection of Asian narratives can be truly representative without reference to the long period of political turmoil and upheaval in the subcontinent, which forms five stories housed in this panorama, but each tale reveals a unique facet of the struggles countless individuals faced.
The troubled Kashmir forms the backdrop for Siddhartha Gigoo’s ‘The Umbrella Man’, the story of an inmate at an asylum which parallels the persecution of Hindu Pandits in Kashmir, cast out from their motherland as refugees, their identity as a community stands endangered with no salvation in sight. Left isolated and expelled from Kashmiri society, they are akin to the inmate at the asylum, “For the inmates, the world ended at that wall. Beyond that brick-and-stone wall was a vast darkness, an oblivion.” The horrors of war and its effects on the natural beauty of Kashmir and the lives of brave youths who enlisted are further illustrated in IlaksheeBhuyanNath’s ‘The Wetland’.
Our subcontinent, unfortunately, is not the only region affected by war: a young mother fleeing war-torn Aleppo is the central figure of Amir Darwish’s ‘Samar’, and the horrors of China’s Cultural Revolution and a childhood spent in starvation during a famine are elucidated by an elderly woman to her young niece growing up in a time of prosperity in Jeremy Tiang’s ‘1997’.
Female protagonists that are breaking away from the tropes of battered and oppressed women populate many of the short stories found in this collection, some like ‘Lilly from Fits and Starts’ by Yu-Mei Balasingamchow and ‘Moyna in Powerless’ (a translated work) written by Moinul Ahsan Saber rise above their difficult circumstances and take charge.
Lilly holds her own as the only female 24-hour delivery rider for McDonald’s, filling in for her brother to support her family while he is behind bars. Her beauty and femininity is juxtaposed with her no-nonsense and often defensive exterior, an occupational hazard for females who work in a male-dominated environment. “She moved the big bike stiffly, and although she was tall enough to swing her leg over it, things got unwieldy when she strapped on the bulky backpack they used for transporting the food. Once, Zul had offered to hold the backpack while she mounted, but she barked him off.”
The challenge taken on by the editors of this collection was no small feat. The American equivalent to this compendium The Best American Short Stories selects its contents from works already published in literary journals, whereas MonideepaSahu had to trawl through numerous submissions. Deciding what qualified as “the best” Asian short stories meant struggling through the deluge of entries and an acute reader’s block for Sahu.
Whilst inclusiveness was a goal when consolidating the selected submissions into a book, out of thirty two stories contained in the anthology only four are translated works- a number that one would expect to be far greater given the rich linguistic heritage of Asia. Central Asian short stories also remain conspicuously absent from the winning essays. Nevertheless, the goal of gleaning transferrable themes of humanity across the stories proves to be not only a successful one but an illuminating and enjoyable one in this inaugural endeavour in collecting the finest short stories written across Asia.
The Best Asian Short Stories 2017
Author: Edited by MonideepaSahu
Publisher: Kitaab, 2017