Increased levels of a protein inflammation in the body may be the reason behind depression — a mental health disorder characterised by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities — among people with Type-1 diabetes, according to researchers.
It is well established that people with both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing depression, but the causes remain poorly understood.
The research showed that higher levels of galectin-3 – an inflammatory protein – is the culprit.
Galectin-3 is a key protein involved in promoting inflammatory immune system responses that are needed to repair tissue damage throughout the body, in response to injury or disease.
According to the researchers, galectin-3 — also linked with Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular diseases — may be useful for diagnosis of depression or maybe a new target for treating depression associated with Type-1 diabetes, which could lead to better patient care.
“We found that people with Type-1 diabetes and depression had higher galectin-3 levels, yet no other diabetes-related metabolic changes could account for these elevated levels,” said Eva Olga Melin from Lund University, Sweden.
The study, published in the journal Endocrine Connections, analysed data on measurements of galectin-3 levels in 283 people, aged between 18-59 years, with Type-1 diabetes for a year.
The results showed that both men and women with Type-1 diabetes and depression also had significantly higher galectin-3 levels.
“…these findings suggest that further investigating the role of galectin-3 could lead to improved diagnosis and maybe better treatment outcomes for patients in the future,” Melin said.
Get picture perfect hair, make up in easy ways
Dermatologist Suggests Ways To Prevent Hair Damage In Monsoon
With monsoons comes a breather from the sultry hot summer, a unique liveliness in the aura which is certainly a favourite of many. We all love petrichor and the very calmness which is attached to monsoons. But what we really don’t like about monsoons is the unpleasant humidity and hair damage. Not only does excessive humidity make us sweat, it also causes unavoidable hair damage which is quite difficult to deal with. Hair gets extremely frizzy because of humidity in the air and at times, no shampoos or popular home remedies for damaged hair actually work.
Dermatologist Dr Kiran Lohia explains that during monsoon, hair gets frizzy because there is a lot more moisture in the air. “Your hair picks up the moisture in the air and gets fluffed up. This is why hair gets frizzy. And to prevent hair from getting frizzy, it is important to provide enough moisture to your hair. The more moisture that there is in your hair, the less it will take from the air. You can apply conditioning serums or conditioners can prevent hair from getting frizzy during monsoon,” she says.
She goes on to add that you can even add your own conditioner on dry hair and apply on dry hair. “If you don’t have conditioners on you, you can even put body lotion on your hair. I personally have put body lotion on my hair to prevent hair from getting frizzy during monsoon,” says Dr Kiran.
Here are some more tips to prevent hair damage during monsoons:
1. Shampoo twice a week
In order to remove residue on your scalp because of rain water, use a mild and deep cleaning shampoo twice a week. Using a nice shampoo goes a long way when it terms of nourishing your tresses and preventing fungal and bacterial infections. Also, apply the shampoo with the right technique, which is applying it from root to tip.
2. Condition the right way
Conditioning hair with the right technique is as important as shampooing hair with the right technique. Make sure you apply conditioner only in the ends and lengths of hair. Also, avoid using too much hair conditioner.
3. Do not tie your hair tightly
When you tie your hair tightly during monsoons, it results in accumulation of rain water in your hair. This makes hair more frizzy and limp. During monsoons, make sure you tie your hair in lose ponytails and buns only.
4. Take regular oil massages
A good oil massage on your hair will help in reversing hair damage caused by monsoons. Hair oil massage gives a natural boost to moisture in your hair and revitalises the dry hair strands. It is also an effective and popular deep conditioning technique for hair. However, avoid using excessive hair oil as it will result in nothing but use of excessive shampoo, which is again harmful for your hair.
5. Use the right comb
During monsoons, it is the best to use a wide tooth comb. It helps in easy detangling of tresses and serves as a good conditioning comb.
6. Flaunt short hair
Monsoon is the best time cut your hair short. It reduces the hassle of maintaining them during monsoons.
7. Eat right
Healthy hair is a sign of good health. Good health is achieved by eating healthy and nutritious foods. If you aspire to strengthen your hair follicles, add more protein and iron rich foods in your diet. Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, mackerel, walnuts and curd are also good for hair health.
(Dr. Kiran Lohia Sethi is a dermatologist at Isya Aesthetics Pvt Ltd)
People with wrinkled eyes appear more sincere
Do you use anti-ageing creams? Besides hiding your wrinkles, they may also negatively impact people’s perception of your sincerity, say researchers. The findings showed that human brains are pre-wired to perceive wrinkles around the eyes as conveying more intense and more sincere emotions. This eye-wrinkle feature, called the Duchenne marker, occurs across multiple facial expressions, including smiles, expressions associated with pain, and expressions of sadness. When participants were shown images of faces grinning and frowning with and without eye wrinkles, the participants focused on which one their brain deemed most important.
They systematically ranked the Duchenne smiles and Duchenne sad expressions as more sincere and more intense than the non-Duchenne expressions, the researchers said. “The expressions involving the Duchenne marker were always dominant,” said Julio Martinez-Trujillo, Professor at Western University in Ontario, Canada.
“So if the emotion is more intense, your brain actually prefers to bring it into perceptual awareness for longer time.” The results, published in the journal Emotion, are a step toward understanding the more general questions of why facial expressions contain the specific facial actions they do, and how that contributes to our understanding of emotion, the researchers said.
“These findings provide evidence of a potential universal language for reading emotions. In other words, a given facial action may have a single role across multiple facial expressions — especially if that facial action shapes your social interactions,” said Nour Malek from the university. “My interest now is, what will be the results if we do this same test with people with autism spectrum disorder. “They often have trouble reading out emotions from other people, so we wonder if that might have to do with their ability to read this marker for sincerity,” he said.
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